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Kitchen 3405: Overview & Food Science Principles- 1

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Kelly Marie Hobbs

on 24 January 2013

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Transcript of Kitchen 3405: Overview & Food Science Principles- 1

Are recipes a 100% accurate? 1. No written recipe can be 100 percent accurate as the judgment of the cook is still the most important factor!

2. A cook’s judgment is based on experience and understanding of:
Raw materials available
Basic cooking principles
Food science What Is Heat? Heat is a form of energy associated with the motion of atoms or molecules.When a substance absorbs heat, its molecules move faster.
In liquids and gases, the molecules move more quickly from place to place and bounce off each other more frequently.
In solids, the molecules stay mostly in place, but they vibrate with more energy. Is Heat & Temperature the same? What is temperature? What are the components to food? Foods are composed of small amounts of compounds such as:
Minerals & Vitamins
Pigments (colours)

Foods are composed of:
Water Protein Fat Carbohydrates Water Starch or carbohydrates = Structure Proteins consist of long chains of components called amino acids.
These chains normally form tight coils.
As proteins are heated, the coils gradually unwind.
At this point, the protein is said to be denatured. Denatured
Proteins become attracted to each other and form bonds.
The coagulated proteins form a solid network of bonds and become firm.
Exposure of proteins to excessive heat toughens them and makes them dry.
Most proteins complete coagulation or are cooked at 160°-185°F (71°-85°C). Coagulation Assignment

Your comic must include a minimum of 8 panels. Through these panels, you must demonstrate your understanding of coagulation in a creative manner. These main points must be included in your comic strip.
1. A title. The name of your comic and your name.
2. An explanation of what a protein is and what food you may find protein in.
3. What is heat and the difference between heat and temperature.
4. How protein reacts with heat and the three stages of coagulation.
5. An explanation of what coagulation means and what are the benefits in cooking. Food Science ... and you thought you would just be eating in this class! Ha! Can you mix water and fat together? Where are flavour molecules stored? In fat or in water? Water is one of the most common substances on earth and is an essential component of all foods.
The amount of water in a food (known as percent water) influences the appearance, texture, and flavor of the food.
All living organisms as well as food contain water.
Water makes up about 70% or more of the weight of most fresh (unprocessed) foods. Even "dry" foods like beans, flour and cereals contain some water.
Fresh fruits and vegetables contain the most water -- between 90% and 95% water. Minerals, Vitamins, Pigments, and Flavour Components Heat Weird Stuff Sous Vide Molecular
Gastronomy Flavour Profiles Heat - the energy transferred from one body to another. Temperature - is the average kinetic energy of the molecules. Fire Quiz magnesium Keeping Colour When Cooking White pigments, are called flavones, are the primary coloring compounds in potatoes, onions, cauliflower, and white cabbage and the white parts of such vegetables as celery, cucumbers and zucchini. White Red pigments, called anthocyanins are found in only a few vegetables, mainly red cabbage and beets.
Blueberries also are coloured by these red pigments.
Acids turn them a brighter red
Alkalis turn them blue or blue-green Reds Green colouring known as chlorophyll is present in all green plants. Green vegetables are common in the kitchen, so it is important to understand the special handling required by this pigment.
Acids are enemy of green vegetables. Both acid and long cooking turn green vegetables to a drab olive green.

Protect the color of green vegetables by
1. Cooking uncovered to allow plant acids to escape.
2. Cooking for the shortest possible time. Properly cooked green vegetables are tender-crisp, not mushy. Green Yellow and orange pigments, called carotenoids are found in carrots, corn, winter squash, rutabaga, sweet potatoes, tomatoes and red peppers.
These pigments are very stable. The are little affected by acids or alkalis.
Long cooking can dull the colour. Short cooking not only prevents dulling of the color but also preserves vitamins and flavours. Orange & Yellow White Red Green Orange/Yellow flavones anthocyanins chlorophyll carotenoids 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 What does it mean when something is "done" cooking? 1. What is the difference between caramelization and the Maillard reaction?
2. What is gelatinization?
3. What temperatures do proteins coagulate.
4. Draw the process of coagulation
5. What makes heat and temperature different?
6. Why do we add water to sugar when making a caramel? Pop Quiz! Food Security What is the first thing you eat with? Bacon with Butterscotch Paste and Dehydrated Apple Huckleberry &
Agar Agar Candy Cap
Isomalt Textured
Chocolate 1. Texture
2. Colour
3. Plate Presentation
4. Height Looking at plating... ask yourself: More Practice? Ready to try it ourselves??? 1. Explore Molecular Gastronomy
Begin to expanding your concept of “food”
Begin to exploring texture, colours and height in plating
Begin to developing a critical eye for plating techniques and modern food. 4. 3. 2. We are bumping into each other
and transfering energy! Weee! Temperature is the average
amount of bumping each other! Measuring the bumping Measuring the average amount of energy
of all of the bumping! Carbohydrates
Starches & Sugars are carbohydrates; both
of these compounds are present in foods in many
forms and can be found in: + Fruit! Vegetables! Grains! Beans Nuts Meat & Fish Fiber: a group of complex substances that gives structure and firmness to plants.
Fiber cannot be digested.
When fruits and vegetables soften during cooking, it is partly because the fiber has been broken down. Acids & sugars make fiber firmer.
Baking soda (alkalis) makes fiber softer. Makes you poop! Which is the highest
in fiber? This will come up over and over again in culinary 20/30 Protein is a major component of: Nuts, beans & Grains Meat Fish Eggs I am so cute and will be so yummy one day!
Chirp! Chirp! Milk Stop looking at their bums... geeze guys... grow up! wow!!!! Maillard Reaction
Occurs when proteins are heated to about 310F or 154C.
The amino acids in the protein chains react with the carbohydrate molecules and undergo a complex chemical reaction. The result is that they turn brown and develop richer flavours.
Takes place only on the dry surface of foods. Reactions Caramelization- when sugars are heated
Maillard Reaction- Amino acids reacting with carbohydrates
Coagulation- Protein coils become firm
Gelatinization- Starch molecules absorb water and swell. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Reactions Caramelization- when sugars are heated
Maillard Reaction- Amino acids reacting with carbohydrates
Coagulation- Protein coils become firm
Gelatinization- Starch molecules absorbe water and swell. Which Reaction has Occured? Caramelization & Gelatinization are the two most
important changes in carbohydrates caused by heat.

Caramelization: the browning of sugars.
Gelatinization: occurs when starches absorb water & swell.
Acids inhibit gelatinization! Fats Fats are present in: Fruits and vegetables to a lesser extent Meats Poultry Fish Eggs Milk & Milk Products Nuts and Grains Sous Vide French for "under vacuum" The term is applied to cooking fods that have been vacuum-sealed in plastic bags.
Precise temperature control is the key. Critical safety factors for sous vide: Use only the freshest and most wholesome ingredients.
Chill food before vacuum packing.
Watch the length of time your food sits in the temperature dangerzone. Ingredients
How to cook those ingredients
How the ingredients react with each other & heat Temperature Which colour does not belong? The building blocks! What has lots of protein? Coagulation Protein Coils Unwind Might be on a quiz... What the heck does that mean? Sugars (carbs)
Proteins (amino acids)
Maillard Reaction + + = This is what happens! Can be either solid or liquid at room temperature.
Liquid fats are called oils.
When solid fats are heated, they melt, or change from solid to liquid.
The melting point of solid fats varies. Fats Important! It could save your life When fats are heated, they begin to break down. Smoke point: The temperature at which fats deteriorate rapidly and begin to smoke. Smoke point varies by type of fat. Vitamins, Minerals & Pigments Water Wow! White pigments stay white in acid and turn yellow in alkaline water. To keep vegetables white, add a little lemon juice or cream of tartar. Don’t add too much though as it may toughen the vegetable! Colours Which colour does not belong? I love food science!
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