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Correcting Learners' Errors
Transcript of Correcting Learners' Errors
- The feedback can be explicit (e.g., grammatical explanation or overt error correction) or implicit
- Corrective feedback allows the learner to detect discrepancies by getting the learner's attention, allows comparison to their own hypothesis and production of the TL, and, overall, may facilitate L2 development
- Review of studies that examine the relationship between corrective feedback and L2 learning: argument for corrective feedback and the counter argument
- Do learners perceive corrective feedback as error correction?
- Learners need to be developmentally ready for recasts and other corrective feedback
- In sum of the review of the studies: Corder 1967 “The Significance of Learner’s Errors” Questions to consider: Tatawy (2002) continued... Schulz (1996) - Reports on a study that compares student and teacher attitudes toward the role of explicit grammar study and error correction
- Students hold more favorable attitudes towards grammar study than teachers do
- A majority of both students and teachers agree that practicing a FL in a situation stimulating real-life is more valuable than the study of grammar
- Error correction: considerable discrepancies amongst students and teachers in the findings
- Disagreement between CTL and LCTL teachers
- Conclusions and suggestions McLaughling (1992) Correcting Learners' Errors Myth 6: Learners' errors should be corrected immediately lest they develop bad habits. Conclusions - Corrective feedback is typically useful in many situations and under many circumstances
- Know your students/audience
- I need to research more in regards to what the best approach is for the public educational system
- What type of corrective feedback will work best?
- Correcting does not equal learning or acquiring
- Mastery of the language occurs in a classroom environment due to the instruction of grammar and corrective feedback
- Corrective feedback in a classroom setting may keep fossilization or the slowing of the L2 learning process from occurring What experience can you recall that relates to Myth 6? Have you ever been corrected when speaking a L2 you were learning? How did you respond to the correction? Was the correction helpful or harmful to your development of the language? 1. Who identifies and corrects the learners' errors?
2. How can correcting errors be used to benefit learners?
3. How would correcting errors be harmful to learners? - Revolutionary for the studying of learners' errors
- Emphasizes two different types of errors: systematic and non-systematic
- Cognitive processes used for learning a L1 is similar to that of a L2
- Identifying strategies and sequences
- Motivation and intelligence
- Input for L1 vs. L2
- What did Corder's theory mean for learners, teachers, and researchers? - "Problems Inherent in the Provision of Corrective Feedback"
- "The Differential Effects of Various Types of Treatment"
- "Conditions Determining the Efficacy of Corrective Feedback"
- Our response... Review - Cites Pienemann's work regarding learner readiness: "teachers can only hope to teach what what learners are developmentally ready to learn" (p. 138)
-Type of learner can effect errors being produced and language acquisition
- Interlanguage (IL) systematicity also presents challenges
- instructed learners vs. uninstructed learners Ortega (2009) - Interlanguage (IL): the language system that each learner constructs at any given point in development (as cited in Ortega 2009)
- Fossilization: permanent lack of mastery of a target language (TL) (as cited by Ortega 2009)
- Emphasizes the relevance of psychologically relevant data which includes the study of utterances produced by the learner
Utterances produced by the leaner in the TL
Utterances of the TL produced by a native speaker (for comparison)
- Five processes central to second language learning Selinker (1972) Alberto 1. Language transfer
2. Transfer of training
3. Strategies of second-language learning
4. Strategies of second-language communication
5. Overgeneralization of target-language linguistic material - Discusses the learner in terms of children and adolescents as L2 learners in the public educational system
- Oral communication skills may be acquired within 2-3 years, it may take up to 4-6 years to acquire literacy skills
- Importance of teaching vocabulary and syntactical knowledge
- Echos Ortega's observation of different kinds of learners
- Emphasizes time, knowledge of research, and affirmation of the values of the student's home culture "Several issues that loom large in the literature call for further examination. Such issues include: the problems inherent in the provision of corrective feedback, the differential effects of various types of feedback, the conditions under which the effect of feedback can be maximized, and the issue of uptake." (Tatawy)