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Kitchen Basics: Knife Skills and Cooking Methods
Transcript of Kitchen Basics: Knife Skills and Cooking Methods
The hand holding the food item is called the "guiding hand"
Mise en Place
Mise en Place is a French term that means "to put in place". It refers to any work you can do in advance to get ready to cook before you actually start.
This is beneficial when you have limited time to cook from start-to-finish.
Mirepoix- combination of carrots, onion, and celery either raw, roasted, or sauteed with butter. It's the flavor base for a wide number of dishes.
Dry Heat Cooking
Dry heat is cooking without using moisture.
Dry Heat Cooking with Fat
Sauteing- cooks food in a small amount of fat, releasing juices.
Knife Skills and
Foods and Nutrition I
Cuts are 1/8 x 1/8 x 2 1/2
Cutting julienne pieces lengthwise
Cuts are 1/4 x 1/4 x 1/4 x 2 1/2
cutting batonnet pieces crosswise to dice
reduction in size, not particular shape
Very finely chopped
Herbs are the leaves, stems, or flowers of an aromatic plant, available fresh or dried.
Spices are the bark, roots, seeds, buds, or berries of an aromatic plant, purchased whole or ground in dry form.
Marinating is one way of adding flavor to dry-heat cooking methods. You soak the meat in seasoned liquid to add flavor. It may tenderize some meats.
Barding also adds flavor to dry heat methods. It is a technique that involves wrapping a very lean food with a piece of fat during cooking to add flavor and juiciness.
place food on a rack in the pan, so it doesn't sit in its own juice. No lid. Cook slowly in the middle of the oven to achieve a golden brown exterior and moist, tender inside
place food directly over a heat source. The crosshatch marks on a food's surface are visually appealing. The food is turned halfway through the cooking process. Highly flavored on the outside, a smoky taste.
is done on the top racks of the oven, directly under the coils or flame. The food is turned halfway through the baking time.
is the same as grilling, only during the cooking process the food is 'basted' with a seasoning sauce. To baste the food, you brush on a sauce or drippings to keep the food moist.
is cooking food in an oven, surrounded by dry, hot air. No liquid is added to the food; no lid traps the steam. Food placed too high or too low browns or burns on the top or bottom before cooked thoroughly. Place in the center rack.
is a dry heat method. The food is cooked with waves of energy which pass through the food. As they do, they create friction (and heat). The food cooks from the inside out. Foods cook in about a fourth of the time.
Foods that are coated in flour, crumbs, or batter then fried in hot oil are pan-fried. It leaves food tender inside while making a crispy exterior.
When stir-frying, food in kept in constant motion over a large, hot surface.
Deep Fat Frying
The food is totally submerged in hot oil.
Why is deep fat frying a dry cooking method when it is submerged in oil??
Moist Heat Cooking
Moist Heat: Cooking foods by using the moisture from H20
Boiling- cook food in a liquid that has reached 212 degrees.
Simmering- similar to boiling, but JUST BELOW boiling. Small bubble break the surface.
Poaching- Food is allowed to sit and cook in very hot (but not boiling) liquid.
Blanching- foods are boiled briefly, then immersed in ice water.
Steaming- like poaching or blanching, these are gentle methods of cooking in liquid. Cooking foods OVER, not IN, retains color, shape, and flavor.
Braising- combining dry and moist heat. First the meat is "seared" over high heat to seal in juices. Then slow-cooked in a liquid.
Pot Roasting is the common American term for braising, also the name of a dish.
Objective & Drill:
Students will be able to differentiate between dry and moist heat cooking methods
: Define "cooking methods" & give an example of a few you know of.