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Basic Russian. Lesson 1
Transcript of Basic Russian. Lesson 1
Things that make Russian easier to learn than other languages:
In Russian, the pronunciation is quite clear and doesn't differ a lot from the written form (1 letter = 1 sound).
Sentence structure is easy. You can say exactly what you want with less words.
Russian use the case system instead of having a strict sentence word order.
Russian doesn't use articles (like "a" or "the").
Russian has only 3 tenses - Past, Present and Future.
2 pronunciation signs
А, Б, В, Г, Д, Е, Ё, Ж, З, И, Й, К, Л, М, Н, О, П, Р, С, Т, У, Ф, Х, Ц, Ч, Ш, Щ, Ъ, Ы, Ь, Э, Ю, Я
Russian letters that are (almost) the same
A, a -
pronounced like "a" in the word "father".
- pronounced like "k" in the word "kitten".
- pronounced like "m" in the word "man".
- pronounced like "o" in the word "bore" (when stressed), pronounced like "a" (when unstressed).
- pronounced like "t" in the word "tap".
Russian letters that look like English ones but sound different
- pronounced like "v" in the word "vet".
- pronounced like "ye" in the word "yes".
- pronounced like "n" in the word "no".
- pronounced like "r" in the word "run".
- pronounced like "s" in the word "see".
- pronounced like "oo" in the word "boot".
- pronounced like "h" in the word "hello".
Russian letters that look unusual
but have familiar sounds
- pronounced like "b" in the word "bat".
- pronounced like "g" in the word "go".
- pronounced like "d" in the word "dog".
- pronounced like "z" in the word "zoo".
- pronounced like "ee" in the word "see".
- pronounced like "l" in the word "love".
- pronounced like "p" in the word "pot".
- pronounced like "f " in the word "fat".
- pronounced like "e" in the word "bed".
New Russian letters and sounds
- pronounced like "u" in the word "universe".
- pronounced like "ya" in the word "yard".
- pronounced like "yo" in the word "yoghurt".
- pronounced like "g" in the word "beige".
- similar to the sound "ts" in the word "sits".
- pronounced like "ch" in the word "chips".
- pronounced like "sh" in the word "shut".
- pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth.
- pronounced like "i" in the word "bit" (but with your tongue slightly back in your mouth).
- used to form diphtongs. E.g., "ой" is like "oy" in the word "boy".
- the "hard sign" is rarely used. Indicates a slight pause between the syllabes.
- the "soft sign" makes the previous letter soft.
Spasibo [spa-see-ba] - "thank you"
Pozhaluista [pa-zha-lu-sta] - "please" or "you're welcome"
Da [da] - "yes"
Net [nyet] - "no"
Zdravstvuitye [zdra-stvooy-tye] - "hello" (formal)
Privet [pree-vyet] - "hi" (informal)
Menya zovut... [mye-nya za-voot] - "my name is..."
Как вас зовут?
Kak vas zovut? [kak vas za-voot] - "what is your name"
Ochen priyatno [o-chen pree-yat-na] - "nice to meet you"
Kak dela? [kak dye-la] - "how are you" (the literal translation is "how are things")
Horosho, spasibo [ha-ra-sho spa-see-ba] - "good, thank you"
Ploho [plo-ha] - "bad"
Do svidaniya [da-svee-da-nee-ya] - "good bye" (formal)
Poka [pa-ka] - "bye" (informal)
Вы говорите по-английски?
Vi govorite po-angliyski? [vi ga-va-ree-tye pa-an-gleey-skee] - "do you speak English?"
Вы говорите по-русски?
Vi govorite po-russki? [vi ga-va-ree-tye pa-roos-skee] - "do you speak Russian?"
Ya ponimau [ya pa-nee-ma-u] - "I understand"
Я не понимаю
Ya ne ponimau [ya nye pa-nee-ma-u] - "I don't understand"