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Chapter 12: Behind Bars
Transcript of Chapter 12: Behind Bars
Formal Adaption VS. Informal Adaption
most common charge? (why are they there??)
Since 1990's the number of inmates over the age of 40 has increased...WHY??!??
--> what is the effect of this?
~60% of inmates in jail suffer from some kind of mental illness
written report goes to the disciplinary committee
loss of privileges
solitary confinement (4.5%)
Ways for Officers to Discipline
How do we protect restricted rights?
Protecting Prisoners Rights
-Sing Sing, 1839
-main purpose was
*Now, there is little difference between male and female prisons.
less likely than males to have committed violent crime
typically have history of sexual/physical abuse (55%!)
7/10 have at least one child
-Culture: economy based around clothing, food, and makeup
social network resembles family
lower level of race-based and gang related aggression
sexual misconduct by officers a major issue
3 Types of Release:
Release & Reentry
belief that they cannot be cured of their criminality...effect is fear throughout communities
REALITY: lowest recidivism rate of ALL offenders
special conditions of release:
psychiatric treatment, distance from schools, cannot own toys, cannot have job or be involved in activities with kids
Chapter 12: Behind Bars
attend orientation, given a handbook
"prisonization"; focus is more realistically on the prison culture
Behavior is defined by inmates, not officials.
1. Professional Criminals: follow rules to speed up time behind bars
2. Jailing: usually found in those who spend time as juveniles in a state facility; work to establish themselves in the hierarchy of inmates
3. Rehabilitative: inmates who focus on reintegration by becoming involved with programs
4. Disorganized Criminals: most likely to have mental illness/low intelligence; almost impossible to adapt to prison culture
Substance Abuse Programs
1.5 million inmates meet the criteria to receive treatment
~11% do receive it; costs $10,000 per inmate
Violence in Prison
establishes power and dominance
deterrent for being victimized (cannot be a target)
value of image
way to acquire goods
deprivation model = bad conditions increases violence
Why do riots occur? ->Theory of relative deprivation [what is expected vs. what is achieved]...riots are a reaction to additional freedoms taken away
Race & Ethnicity
divided into hostile groups, mainly determined by race
hard to track; victims are ashamed
1 in 10 state prisoners sexually violated
can accept in return for protection
bottom of the prison hierarchy
General Job Categories:
1. Block Officers = supervise as many as 400 inmates; no one harms themselves or others
->'camp counselor' role
2. Work Detail Supervisor = oversee small groups as they work in the kitchen, store, laundry, etc.
3. Industrial Shop & School Officers = maintenance and security for vocational/education programs
4. Yard Officers = least amount of seniority; stressful and dangerous position
5. Tower Guards = isolated, silent posts for 8 hour shifts
6. Administrative Building Assignments = oversee visitations, gate security, process paperwork for transfers
Whitley v. Albers (1986)
-only violates rights if the force amounts to "unnecessary and wanton infliction of pain"
Hudson v. McMillan (1992)
-injuries suffered by inmate from official did violate inmate's rights because there was no security concern
-focus is not on how much force is used, but why it is used (cannot be done "maliciously or sadistically"
Do female officers create a different concern?
--> proven to be just as effective
-->main problem is sexual misconduct with inmates
most protocol uses the 'hands-off' doctrine and decisions are left to prison officials with little judicial intervention
1976 Estelle v. Gamble : established "deliberate indifference" standard
"Identifiable human needs" standard to determine if a violation of the 8th
: served max amount of time on the initial sentence
: President or Governor can grant one; occasionally a board of pardons makes recommendations
: furlough (good behavior in prison proves they represent no risk; allowed to leave and come back)
housing and employment are difficult...most earn at most $8500/year for first few years
43% back in prison within three years
Definition: continued abstinence from offending and reintroduction into society
-->starts behind bars, continues through halfway houses
Indiana: law that restricts them from using social networking sites
New York: xBox and Playstation closed their accounts
Sex Offender Registries -->Megan's Law