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Mughal, Safavid, and Ottoman Empire

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Ciara Sarao

on 27 January 2013

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Transcript of Mughal, Safavid, and Ottoman Empire

Reasons why the Empire was Successful Constantinople Decline Sultans lived in the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul Sultan Was one of the largest and longest lasting empire highly centralized Heart of Byzantine Empire and became capital of Ottoman Empire. Power of empire was warning by 1683 when attempt was made to conquer Vienna and failed The Ottoman Empire Replaced Byzantine Empire as major power in Eastern Mediterranean. Reached under the Suleyman the Magnificent (1520-1566) One legacy of the Islamic Ottoman Empire is the robust secularism of modern Turkey at its peak included:Turkey, Egypt, Greece, Bulgaria etc. Successfully ruled by one family for 7 centuries State-run education system State-run judical system Promotion to positions of power largely depended on merit Created alliances across political and racial groups United by Islamic warrior code with ideal of increasing Muslim territory through Jihad Private power and wealth were controlled Mehmed renamed Constantinople Istanbul Topkapi palace held a mantel of Prophet Muhammad and his standard as well as his footprint Sultan spent his life on harmel-a paradox which was a feature of Islam Became less centralized and controlled weakened Work Turk then became synonyms with cruelty Many reasons why it was declined Empire ended on November 1, 1922 Ottoman caliphate continued institution with reduced authority it too got abolished on 3rd of March 1924 The Mughal Empire • Ruled most of India and Pakistan in the 16th and 17th century. • Spread Muslim and Persian arts. • They were Muslims who ruled a country with a large majority of Hindus. • Brought together many small kingdoms. • Centralized government • Persian art and culture • Mixed Persian, Arabic, and Hindi language to make Urdu. • Took account of pupils’ needs and culture. Muslims in India Muslim Empires By Ciara Sarao, Cristina Maquera,
Dana Story & Ada Saldana • Muslims were in India before Mughals • Muslims arrived in the 8th century • In the 10th century a Muslim ruler invaded Punjab 11 times • A successful invasion came in the 12th century • The Mughal Empire grew out of the Mongol Empire and became Muslims. Growth of the Empire • Were Turkish Muslims from Central Asia • The Empire grew in the mid-1500s when emperor Akbar ruled • Akbar conquered many lands and made the government stronger • In the 1600s the Mughal Empire controlled almost all of India • In the 1600s a new emperor changed the religious policies • The emperor ordered people to obey strict laws •The emperor also sent war elephants when people protest • In the late 1600s the Mughal Empire soon fell apart Cultural Achievements • Muslims and Hindus lived together peacefully • Elements of their culture blended together • Persian language and Persian clothing styles were popular • Many of the buildings blended Persian, Islamic, and Hindu styles •The Taj Mahal was built by Akbar’s grandson Shah Jahan for his wife • It had gardens with pathways and fountains to add beauty Babur • Great grandson of Tamerlane • Came to India in 1526 to fight against Ibrahim Lodi. • Defeated Lodi and established the Mughal Empire in India. • Ruled until 1530 • Succeeded by his son Humayun. • Tolerated Hinduism • Founder of the Mughal Empire Akbar the Great • Humayun’s son • Described as the glory of the empire • Reigned from 1556 to 1605 • Was Muslim but was remembered as a tolerant leader • Started a new faith called Din-i-llahi. • Attempted to mix Islam and Hinduism, Christianity, Jainism, and other faiths. • Won over the Hindus and married a Hindu princess. • Conquered many lands and made the government Jahangir • Akbar’s son • Readopted Islam as the state of religion • Continued the policy of religious toleration • Built magnificent gardens and monuments Similarities and Differences The Safavid Empire The Safavid empire adopted the Persian customs and their language Timur Timur claimed that he was a descent from Genghis Khan's family they gave him a condition that they would give him the town of Kish to make it into a kingdom in central Asia. In 1402 he captured the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid and he also conquered Syria He put his attention on to campaigns to the east of his quickly acquired and ill-cemented empire. He died in 1405 going on a expedition to China He showed interest in the Sufism a form of Islamic mysticism Timur's son Shahrokh Shah only new how to loose control of western and southern Iran from his beautiful capital at Herat. He made Herat a very beautiful capital. The Qara Qoyunlu (The Black Sheep)/Jahan Shah Mehmed II Ruled the ottoman Empire from 1451 to 1481. Conquered Constantinople by using huge cannons Made Constantinople, which they call Istanbul, new capital. Defeated the Byzantine Empire Turned their church to a mosque which was the Hagia Sophia church The Empire got expanded to Anatolia or called Asia Minor Conquered Syria and Egypt. Holy cities of Mecca and Medina accepted the rules of Ottoman Suleyman I Ruled from 1520 to 1566 Pushed the Mediterranean into Europe areas Turned Istanbul into a Muslim city The Qara Qoyunlu ruled the western Iran When Shahrokh died Jahan Shah the new ruler extended Qara Qoyunlus ruling route out of the northwest deeper into Iran. The Timurids relied on the Qara Qoyunlu rival Aq Qoyunlu (The White Sheep) Jahan Shah was destroyed by the Aq Qoyunlu iby the 1467 Abbas I Uzun Hasan / Yquba Uzun Hasan lived a short-lived Iranian Empire His son was on the other hand Yquba his son was very successful Yquba tried to remove the state taxes but he did not remove it because the Muslim canon said no References Weaknesses Differences and Comparisons in the Social and Economic Organization Decline of the Mughal dynasty Ottoman Decline in the 17th Century Decline of the Safavid Empire The Safavid Empire lost control when it was overrun by the Afghan tribe The Ottoman empire and the Russians threatened the Safavid Some thing that helped the decline was the weak leadership of shah Suleyman The decentralization had an effect on the once dominating empire The downfall was most likely caused by the threats Economic problems Less centralized Weak Sultans Sultans became less sensitive to public opinion A new leader Ordered people to obey strict laws Made non-Muslims pay special tax Sent war elephants to crush people when they protested. Osman Gazi Founder of Ottoman Empire Declared war when he faced an alliance of Brusa and Nice also Yarhisar and Karadjahisar Attacked Nice in 1291 Got Orkan Gazi, his son, to marry the Byzantine Emperor of Yarhisar's daughter Captured Karadjahisar and from Castle Church he changed it to a mosque. Had his victories in Biledjk and Yarhisar in 1299. Sultan Selmin II Born in Constantinople The Ottoman rule in Moldavia and Walachia got stronger after signing a peace treaty with Austria. The Ottoman captured Cyprus from Venetias in 1570-71 and they Recaptured Tunsia in 1574. Ottoman Empire: http://bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/ottomanempire_1.shtml
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/Selim-II
http://www.naqshbandi.org/ottomans/history.htm Capital of the Ottoman when it was conquered in 1453 by Mehmed II. After Mehmed made population go down he repopulated from other places to the Ottoman Istanbul position in Europe, Africa, and Asia Became the best and greatest trade centers in the world. Jahan The Taj Mahal were commisioned by Jahan The Mughal Empire Symbolises,Stability, Power, and Confidence Jahan built a mausoleum for his wife, Mumtaz There are three very important Muslim Empires with important leaders too. The Ottoman Empire had sultans while the Safavid Empire shahs and the Mughal Empire had Emperors.

I think the most important emperor in the Mughal Empire is Akbar the Great. Akbar was Humayun’s son; he reigned from 1556 to 1605. Babur may have discovered the Mughal Empire but it was during Akbar’s reign that the empire grew. Akbar won against the Hindus and conquered many lands. Akbar also started a new faith called Din-i-llahi. He is described as the glory of the empire. Akbar believed that no single religion, including Islam, had all the answers. Akbar helped unify the empire by inviting the Hindus in there empire and getting rid of the special tax that non-Muslims had to pay. He was remembered as a tolerant leader.

Another important leader is from the Ottoman Empire. Mehmed II ruled from 1451 to 1481 he conquered Constantinople and made it their capital they named it Istanbul. He also conquered Syria and Egypt. Mehmed defeated the Byzantine Empire and turned their church, the Hagia Sophia, into a mosque. During his reign the empire expanded into Europe, Asia, and Africa. Cities in Mecca and Medina accepted Ottoman rules. Mehmed became known as “The Conqueror.”

The last leader that I am going to write about is the Safavid leader named ‘Abbas. ‘Abbas was the greatest leader the Safavid Empire had. He strengthened the military and trained slave boys to be soldiers. ‘Abbas defeated the Uzbeks and took back land from the Ottomans. He encouraged manufacturing of traditional products. People built beautiful mosques for ‘Abbas. ‘Abbas made contributions to the Safavid culture and economy. Three of the greatest Islamic Empires Jahan's period the capital had moved to Red fort in Delhi putting the fort at the heart of Mughal power. Jahan had three lines inscribed there "if there is paradise on earth it is here, it is here" Many strong leaders Mughal http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/mughalempire_1.shtml http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/History/Mughals/mughals.html Both Safavid and Ottoman Empires declined by threats Encouraged handicraft production and trade Safavid were less market oriented Ignoring rising European threats Workshops produced several products and public works and hired many artisans Peasents were not taken care of Some rulers were more interested in satasfying themselves. Succession problems Central power weakenss Lasted from 1501-1722 State religon was Shi'a Economic strength came from its location on the trade routes He was known as Abbas the Great Lived from 1571-1629 Strengthened the Safavid dynasty Had religous tolerence and gave privileges to Christian groups. Made Esfahan the capital of Persia Removed Ottoman and Uzbek troops from Persian soil Aurangzeb Jahan's son and the last great Mughal Emperor Had his brother killed and had his father imprisoned Ended the religous tolerance policy No longer allowed the Hindu community to live under their laws and customs Made non-Muslims pay special tax Tore down many Hindu temples Under his rule Mughal reached its peak in military power Aurangzeb was the cause of the Mughals' decline because of his intolerance and hostility Safavid
http://www.iranchamber.com/history/safavids/safavids.php http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/447/Abbas-I Three Paragraphs
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