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Transcript of Dog Training
In around 127-116 B.C. a Roman farmer, Marcus Varro, recorded advice on raising and training puppies for herding livestock.
In 1848 W. N. Hutchinson published his book Dog Breaking: The Most Expeditious, Certain and Easy Method, Whether Great Excellence or Only Mediocrity Be Required, With Odds and Ends for Those Who Love the Dog and the Gun. Primarily concerned with training hunting dogs such as pointers and setters, the book advocates a form of reward-based training, specifically using meat as reward.
Konrad Most began training dogs for police work in Germany and carried out original research into training dogs for a broad range of service tasks, which got him charged in 1914 for using them in war. He headed the Experimental Institute for Armed Forces' Dogs during WWII and afterwords ran the German Dog Farm, training dogs for work. His book, Training Dogs: A Manual, talks about operant conditioning and the spiked collar.
Marian Breland opened the "I.Q. Zoo" in 1995 as both a training facility and a showcase for trained animals, and were among the first to use trained animals in commercials.
Konrad Lorenz, an Austrian Scientist further popularized animal behaviorism with his books "Man Meets Dog" and "King Solomon's Ring" with the three essential commands: lie down, basket, and heel.
In 1935, the American Kennel Club began obedience trials, and in the following years popular magazines raised public awareness of the benefits of having a trained pet dog, and of the recreational possibilities of dog training as a hobby.
In the 1950s Blanche Saunders was a advocate of pet-dog training, traveling throughout the US to promote obedience classes, as well as his book "The Complete Book of Dog Obedience" that says dogs should be disciplined when they do wrong and rewarded when they do good, while using the "Command! Jerk! Praise!" method.
In 1965, John Paul Scott and John Fuller identified the critical periods for learning and social development in puppies and published Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog, a landmark study of dog behavior.
The Monks of New Skete were breeders and trainers of German Shepherds who published How to Be Your Dog's Best Friend in 1978, which became a bestseller, and they endorsed confrontational punishments.
The 1980 tv series Training Dogs the Woodhouse Way made Barbara Woodhouse a household name and the first international celebrity dog trainer.
In the 1980s veterinarian and animal behaviorist Ian Dunbar founded Sirius Dog Training, the first off-leash training program specifically for puppies under 6 months, which emphasizes the importance of teaching basic household manners
The 21st century has seen the proliferation of television programs and accompanying books that feature dog training and rehabilitation, including Dog Whisperer with Cesar Millan, It's Me or the Dog featuring Victoria Stillwell, The Underdog Show, and many more.
Is a form of learning in which an individual's behavior is modified by its consequences. Two complementary motivations drive instrumental learning: the maximization of positive outcomes and minimization of aversive ones.
There are two ways in which behavior is reinforced or strengthened: Positive
Reinforcement occurs when a behavior is strengthened by producing some desirable consequence; negative reinforcement occurs when a behavior is strengthened by avoiding some undesirable consequence.
There are two ways in which behavior is decreased or weakened: negative punishment occurs when a behavior is weakened by not producing a reinforcing consequence; and positive punishment
occurs when a behavior is weakened by producing a consequence that is discouraging.
Or Pavlovian conditioning is a form of learning in which one stimulus, the conditioned stimulus, comes to signal the occurrence of a second stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus.
A dog learns to associate things in its environment, or discovers some things just go together. A dog may become afraid of rain through an association with thunder and lightning.
It is used in dog training to help a dog make specific associations with a particular stimulus.
Is a change in a response to a stimulus that does not involve associating the presented stimulus with another stimulus or event such as reward or punishment.
Habituation is non-associative learning. An example is where a dog that reacts excitedly to a door bell is subjected to repeated ringing without accompanying visitors, and stops reacting to the meaningless stimuli. It becomes habituated to the noise.
On the other side of habituation, is sensitization. Some dogs' reactions to the stimuli become stronger instead of them habituating to the repeated stimuli or event.
Desensitization is the process of pairing positive experiences with an object, person, or situation that causes fear or anxiety.
Is the learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others. This form of learning does not need reinforcement to occur; instead, a model is required. While the model may not be intentionally trying to instill any particular behavior, many behaviors that are observed are remembered and imitated.
The dog must pay attention to the dog or person performing the modeled behavior; retain the information gathered about the behavior during the observation; be motivated to reproduce the behavior in a time and place removed from the original; and finally, produce the behavior
Koehler explained that a dog's learned behavior is an act of choice based on its own learning experience. When those choices are influenced by the expectation of reward, the behavior will most likely be repeated, and when those choices are influenced by the anticipation of punishment, they will most likely cease.
Action→Memory→Desire encapsulates the learning pattern used by the method; the dog acts, remembers the consequences, and forms the desire to repeat or avoid those consequences.
While the model has been used consistently since 1962, some of the punishment procedures described in the book are now not considered necessary, humane, or appropriate by many trainers.
Purely positive or motivational training employs the use of rewards to reinforce good behavior, and ignores all bad behavior.
Motivational training has its roots in captive animal training, where compulsion and corrections are both difficult and dangerous, and ignoring bad behavior is not problematic as the animal lives under controlled conditions. As a dog training strategy, purely positive training is feasible, but difficult, as it requires time and patience to control the rewards the dog receives for behavior.
The system uses conditioned reinforcers which are able to be delivered more quickly and more precisely than primary reinforcers such as food. The term 'clicker' comes from a small metal cricket adapted from a child's toy, however some trainers using the method use a whistle, a word, or even a light as the conditioned reinforcer.
The basis of effective clicker training is precise timing to deliver the conditioned reinforcer at the same moment as the desired behaviour is offered.
Involves the use of an electric shock as an aversive. Common forms are collars which can be triggered remotely, or that are triggered by barking, fencing that delivers a shock when a dog wearing a special collar crosses a buried wire, and mats that can be placed on furniture to deliver a shock. Some aids deliver an aversive such as a spray of citronella when triggered.
The use of electric shock aversives for training dogs is the subject of considerable controversy.
Model-rival training uses a model, or a rival for attention, to demonstrate the desired behavior.
The model-rival training involves an interaction between the trainer, the dog, and a person acting as a model-rival. In view of the dog, a dialogue concerning a particular toy commenced between the trainer and the model-rival. The trainer praised or scolded the model-rival depending on whether the model-rival had named the toy correctly.
The model is based on a theory that "dogs are wolves" and since wolves live in hierarchical packs where an alpha male rules over everyone else, then humans must dominate dogs in order to modify their behavior.
Animal behaviorists assert that using dominance
to modify a behavior can suppress the behavior without addressing the underlying cause of the problem. It can increase the dog's fear, anxiety, and aggression. Dogs that are subjected to repeated threats may react with aggression not because they are trying to be dominant, but because they feel threatened and afraid.
Relationship based training exploits the patterns of communication, interpretation and adjustment between dogs and their trainers.
The method sets out to achieve results that benefit both the dog and the trainer, while at the same time enhancing and strengthening their relationship.
Dogs have become closely associated with humans through domestication and have also become sensitive to human communicative signals. Generally, they have a lot of exposure to human speech and are believed to have a good ability to recognize human speech.
For any of these techniques, consistency of the owner's training/behavior and level of engagement can influence the affectiveness of any technique applied.
In considering the natural behaviours of specific breeds of dogs, it is possible to train them to perform specialised, highly useful, tasks.
Most working breeds of dogs are able to be trained to find people with their sense of smell.
For example, Labrador retrievers are the favored breed for the detection of explosives because of their food drive which enables them to keep focused on a task despite noise and other distractions.