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Types of Clauses and their Linking Words

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Scott Linder

on 28 August 2014

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Transcript of Types of Clauses and their Linking Words

because
because of
the reason for
the reason why
now that

REASON
as

You man do as you please.
It all ended as I expected.
As you have made your bed, so you must lie on it.
As he has lived, so will he die.
As the twig is bent, the branch will grow.

MANNER
than, as


He is older than he looks.
No one can run faster than Rama.
He is as stupid as he is lazy.
He is not so clever as you think.

*Verb of degree is often understood and not expressed
Nobody knows it better than I. [do]
Few are better leader than he. [is]
You like curry better than I. [like it].

DEGREE
where
wherever

I have put it where I can find it again.
They can stay where they are.
Where you live, I will live.
He led the caravan wherever he wanted to go.

PLACE
to
in order to
so as to
so that
in order that
in case
for

PURPOSE
therefore
as a result
consequently
as a consequence

RESULT
QUICK GLANCE:
When you have finished your work, you may go home.
I will do it when I think fit.
Don’t talk while she is singing.
After the law had been passed, this form of crime ceased.
Do it before you forget.
Before you go, bring me some water.
There was silence as the leader spoke.
Just as he entered the room, the clock struck.
TIME
if
whether
unless

If I like it, I shall buy it.
Come, if you wish to.
If it rains, we shall stay at home.
You must go whether you hear from him or not.
Whether Ram gives him money or not, he will speak the truth.
Unless you work hard, you will fail.
CONDITION
condition
result
degree
reason
purpose
place
time
Clause Types
manner
when
after
whenever
since
just
When working with TIME clauses,
also
look at the tenses...
present
future
imperative
past
past perfect
present
present perfect
past
past perfect
present
future
past to past
2.4 A: When will they announce the results?
B: They _____________ (not/announce) them
until they ___________ (mark) all the papers.


2. 7 A: Has your boss signed the contract yet?
B: No. I'm not sure when he ________ (sign) it.


2.12 A: Do you see Catherine very often?
B: We meet whenever she ________ (has) time.
announce
When
when
while
After
before
Before
as
Just
future
2.2 A: How did you tear your dress?
B: I____________ (step) on it as I ___________ (get) out of the car.



2.3 A: Have you finished with the newspaper?
B: Almost. You can have it after I _________ (read) the sports section.



2.9 A: Did you friends organize a surprise party for your birthday?
B: Yes! No sooner ____________ (I/open) the door than all my
friends ________ (jump) out to surprise me!



2.8 A: Have you spoken to Uncle John?
B: Yes. I __________ (phone) him before I _________ (leave) the house
did you tear
stepped
was getting
past
past (continuous)
past
Have
have read
present (perfect)
present (perfect)
Did
had I opened
jumped
past
past
past (perfect)
organize
Have
spoken
phoned
left
present (perfect)
past
past
future
present (perfect)
won't announce
have marked
linker
signed
yet
see
will sign
has
present (perfect)
future
present
present
to present
What is the thinking process?
Let's "think out loud"
together.
Has
finished
linker
linker
#1.
Find linker
#2.
Find tense
What is the thinking process?
Let's "think out loud"
together AGAIN.
#1.
Find linker
#2.
Find tense
linker
linker
linker
linker
linker
BY
Situation will continue UP TO a certain time
AGO
BEFORE
His father retired 5 years ago.

I visited it 3 days ago.

He moved to the US 10 years ago
I have met John before.

Have you visited the new store before?

He moved to the USA 10 years before Peter did.
specific past
unspecific past
UNTIL
I worked until 7 pm.

I can use my parents' car until 5 pm.

I had to stay in the exam room until the end of the exam.
Situation will happen BEFORE or AT a certain time.
I need to return my movie by January 12th.

I will finish my homework by 4 pm.

I will quit smoking by the summer
BY THE TIME
Use BEFORE a verb
The subway was closed by the time I left work.

The thief was gone by the time I called the police.
During
While
followed by a
noun
I slept a lot during the flight.

During the movie, there was a lot of noise.

During the class, the teacher spoke about science.
I slept a lot While I was flying.

While watching the movie, there was a lot of noise.

While attending the class, we learned a
lot about science
followed by a
verb
The same meaning... but used in a different way. Both mean "in the middle of doing something".
during - while
ago -- before
until -- till
while -- as -ing
the moment (that)
past
time unknown
between then
and up to now
=
SEQUENCE OF TIME:
SEQUENCE OF TIME:
1.1 I can't do any washing ___________ the washing machine is repaired.


1.5 Sarah parked the car __________ Paul dashed into the bank.


1.6 I have to finish these letters _______________ I can leave the office.


1.9. You must be home ____________ eleven o'clock tonight.
a fixed point in time
until
situation
*situation can't happen UP TO
that time
two activities happening at the same time,
so either WHILE or DURING
verb
while
two activities, one must happen first, but no SPECIFIC time is given
before
two activities, one must happen first, a SPECIFIC time is given
by
He is such a good man that all respect him.

I was tired, so I went to bed early.

As a result, the walls built by the Romans still stand.

He spoke in such a low voice that few could hear him.
independent clause is in present,
dependent not!??
QUICK GLANCE:
such a
As a result
such a
that
that
so
+ NOUNS
+ ADJECTIVE / ADVERBS
so
so
so... (that)
such... (that)

more FORMAL
more INFORMAL
such
so tall
so hot
so expensive
so delicious
so friendly
so luxurious
ran so quickly
read so slowly
spoke so carefully
such a tall man
such a hot day
such an expensive shop
such a delicious cake
such friendly people
such luxurious homes
so much...
so little...
(that)
(that)
(, that)
(, that)
(, that)
(, that)
(, that)
(, that)
(, that)
(, that)
(, that)
(, that)
(, that)
(, that)
(, that)
(, that)
(, that)
(, that)
X
X
X
to be
to be
so many...
so few...
uncountables
plurals
so much/little candy
so much/little time
so much/little fruit
so many/few candies
so many/few reasons
so many/few apples
such a lot of
uncountable & plurals
"such a lot of" can replace "so much" and "so many"
5.3 I bought ___________ a lot of shopping that I couldn't carry all the bags.


5.5 She dresses _______ elegantly that everyone admires her.


5.9 It was ____________ amazing film that I laughed all the way through.
so, such, or such a/an
only comes with...
such
so
such an
adjective
noun
(, that)
(, that)
(, that)
(, that)
(, that)
as
since
that
for

QUICK GLANCE
specific time
I failed the test because I was too lazy.

Since I was hungry, I went to McDonalds.

As there was nothing more to learn, I quit school.

(The fact) that she cheated was the reason why they were fighting.

Now that they had broken up, he could ask her out.
because
Now that
the reason why
As
Since
because = as = since
I came _____________ you called.

I murdered him ___________ he was ugly.

__________ she kissed me, I fell in love.

________ you asked, I will answer.
because
"as" feels odd, "since" seems like time
"as" feels odd, "since" seems like time
"since" seems like time
time
*learn the "FEELING"
of the differences
because
always good
both informal and formal
a bit formal, less frequent
a bit more formal, and sometimes feels TIME related!?
As
Since
* mix them up
the reason for
the reason why
because of
on account of
because of
on account of
+ NOUN / NOUN-ing
CLAUSE
___ her anger was (the fact) that her father beat her.
___ her loving him was her fear of being alone.
due to the fact that
___ she kissed him was that she was afraid he would stop liking her.
The black signal was raised ___ the rain.
He called ___ the monkey on his roof.
He asked for money ___ he lost all of his gambling.
BUT
POOR WRITING!!!
Many of these words are UNNECESSARY and make writing too wordy! You can write more concisely!
The reason for her anger was (the fact) that her father beat her.
The reason why she kissed him was that she was afraid he would stop liking her.
The black signal was raised on account of the rain.
He called because of the monkey on his roof.
He asked for money due to the fact that he lost all of his gambling.
She was angry because her father beat her.
She kissed him because she was afraid he would stop liking her.
He asked for money because he lost all of his gambling.
regardless of the fact that

due to the fact that

the reason is that

as to whether or not to

at this point in time

it is believed that


concerning the matter of

by means of

these are the kinds of . . . that
use "although"
use "because"
omit
omit "as to" and "or not"
use "now" or "today"
use a specific subject
and "believes"
use "about"
use "by"
use "these" plus a
specific subject
I will give you a map so that you find the way.

We eat so that we may live.

The UNO was formed in order that countries might discuss world problems.

There was an earthquake in China, which was bad news.

He was extra polite to his seniors lest something adverse should be written into his records.

Sleep not, lest your Lord come in the night.
QUICK GLANCE
so that
so that
in order that
which
lest
lest
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