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Cells and the Cell Theory
Transcript of Cells and the Cell Theory
Accepted for over 2000 years, proposed by Aristotle Francesco Redi, was the first to test this theory.
To explain the sudden appearance of maggots on exposed meat, he devised a clever experiment. Francesco placed two peices of meat into two glass jars. One jar had its lid open while the other was enclosed. The enclosed meat stayed preserved, though the neat with the flies crawling over grew maggots. From here, Francesco Redi disproved the abiogenesis theory. (Redi's clever experiment) Louis Pastuer The Cell Theory The Cell Theory states that:
-All living beings are made of cells
-The basic unit of life is a cell
-Cells appear from already existing cells
A more modern version includes ideas such as:
-Energy flows within cells
-DNA is passed on from cell to cell
-The chemical composition of all cells are roughly the same Lous Pastuer believed that fermentation was a principle in micro-organisms
He believed that this principle was an organism.
To test the theory, he had created a flask and cooled the air to draw in moisture. The S shape held fresh air, and he believed that it was because of micro-organisms. Anton Van Leeunwenhoek had earlier described single cell molecules, calling them "Little living animalcules He coined the term "cells". By viewing a dead cork cell under the
microscope, he viewed many tiny "rooms". Reminding him of monk
cells, he decided to name the rooms after them. Microscopes The discovery of the microscope helped with many scientific discoveries, thank to its magnification function. It allowed the viewing of cells and organisms up close. Rudolf Virchow This man theorized that biogenesis was more likely than abiogenesis. Biogenesis states that living organisms can only spawn from other living organisms Schleiden and Schwann Mathias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann studied the development of life. By studying many plants, they were able to determine that they were built of cells, and theorized that new cells come from a nucleus. They created the first part of the cell theory - that all organisms are made up of one or more cells. Cell Theory History Rudolf Virchow strikes again Virchow corrected misconceptions brought up by Schwann and Schleiden. By using his experiments that showed bone cells arising from cartliage cells and the splitting of multicellular organisms, he concluded that a pre-existing cell had to be around for another cell to be made Modern Cell Theory Since then, many scientists were able to further research studies thanks to improvments to technology, adding on the cell theory and making it what it is now. Parts of a Cell - Animal and Plant Organelles (animal cell) (plant cell) Nucleus: Lysosome: Endoplasmic reticulum: Golgi apparatus: Mitochrondria Centrioles Vacuoles: Plant Exclusive: Cell Wall Chloroplast Cell Membrane: -Every cell has one
-The boundary between the cell innards and and the environment
-Means of communication
-Lipids surrounding them
-Can change shape -Controls all activities within a cell
-Coded in DNA in messagers that leave the nucleus
-The very inner component is called a nucleolus, which produces ribosomes Ribosomes: -Turns info on messenger molecules into protein
-Proteins are packed into vesicles to transport -Lysosomes breaks break down materials using digestive enzymes
-Some lysocsomes kill infections -Molecules attach themselves to this
-They are turned into vesicles and are shipped across the cell
-This is where lysosomes are produced -Network of folded membrans and tubes
-Connected to nucleus
-Rough endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes while smooth endoplasmic reticulum does not
-Packages large molecules -Provides energy
-Chemical reactions convert food energy into a form that the cell can use -In animal cells, these help with cell division via moving genetic material into a new cell correctly -Vacuoles provide space for water, food, and minerals to be stored
-Digestion of old cells as well as containing poisin and waste is another function of some vacuoles -Cell walls support the cell and give them shape
-Cellulose is a material full of fibre which encloses the membrane -Organelles of photosynthesis
-Chlorophyll found inside
-Converts energy from the sun to chemical energy
-Two layers of membrane: Inner (chlorophyll) and outer layer membrane BIBLIOGRAPHY: Gue , David. "Life from Life" ScienceFocus10. Ed. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2004. Print.
Gue , David. "Redi’s Controlled Experiment" ScienceFocus10. Ed. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2004. Print.
Gue , David. "Pasteur’s Evidence" ScienceFocus10. Ed. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2004. Print.
Gue , David. "Discovering Cells" ScienceFocus10. Ed. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2004. Print.
Gue , David. "Developing the Cell Theory" ScienceFocus10. Ed. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2004. Print.
Gue , David. "Plant and Animal Cells" ScienceFocus10. Ed. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2004. Print.
Symington, Ken. “Science Ch. 7 Notes” Alberta, web. By Dominic Sawicki