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Bilingual education

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Aimee Godinez

on 28 October 2014

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Transcript of Bilingual education

Bilingual Education
1941-1965
1957
Sputnik
1954
Brown vs. Board of Education
of Topeka
1941
1947
Mo Hock Ke Lok Po vs. Stainback
1946
Mendez vs. Westminster and the California Board
of Education
"For All the Children/Para Todos los Niños


December 7, 1941, the day that would live in infamy. Japan bombs Pearl Harbor and America enters World War II

Education took a back seat to the war because everyone was enlisting or working in factories to support the war efforts, including teachers.

The Japanese people who lived in America could not be trusted and were sent to internment camps.

President Roosevelt ordered the internment of the Japanese for fear of espionage but also to protect them from Americans who might retaliate.


A federal court case in Orange County, California

Gonzalo Mendez challenged the Westminster School and the Orange County School Board on the segregation of Mexican-American children

David Marcus, the attorney for the Mendez and four other families, presented unique information that could not be denied

The presiding judge, Paul J. McCormick, agreed with Marcus and the five families and ruled that the schools and school districts stop their "discriminatory practices against the pupils of Mexican descent in the public schools"

McCormick ruled in favor of Mendez on February 18, 1946




May 17th- The U.S Supreme Court announces its decision that separate facilities are inherently unequal.

It overturned the previous ruling in 1896 (Plessy vs. Ferguson).

Brown vs. Board is a combination of 5 cases from Kansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, South Carolina, Virginia.

It was a historic first step in a long and continuous journey.

Effects on Bilingual Education

As with most wars, there was a shift against the Japanese language and bilingualism.

Being bilingual was viewed in a negative way.

Strict English only in schools to show patriotism and support America.

Pearl Harbor

District Court, Hawaii. October 22, 1947

The complainants were challenging Act 104 of Hawaiian Legislature "An Act Regulating the teaching of Foreign Languages to Children".

Two complaints were Hawaiian with Chinese descent and had children in the public school system.

The other complaints were a Chinese language teacher and three eleemosynary wanting to teach Chinese.

Effects on Bilingual Education
Effects on Bilingual Education
Effects on Bilingual Education

Launched on October 4, 1957 by Soviet Union.

The first satellite to orbit the earth.

Was Launched during the Cold War

Presented a threat to American National Security and hurt our pride as well.

In response, America launched the Explorer I on January 31, 1958

Sputnik

Had a reverse pendulum swing effect on Bilingualism.

Now America saw the benefits and importance of bilingual education

Saw the need for language intelligence and translators.

Effects on Bilingual Education
Judge McCormick wrote the following about his decision


"'[t]he equal protection of the laws pertaining to the public school system in California is not provided by furnishing in separate schools the same technical facilities, textbooks and courses of instruction to children of Mexican ancestry that are available to the other public school children regardless of their ancestry. A paramount requisite in the American system of public education is social equality. It must be open to all children by unified school association regardless of lineage."


Mendez vs. Westminster was the first step toward desegregating the public school systems and it was also a step towards accepting bilingualism

This federal court case was an important precedent for Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka


This case brought to light that if parents want their children to learn a foreign language or have them taught in a foreign language, it should be the parents choice not the state.

Linda Brown

The steps taken against segregation were also steps taken against the negative view on bilingual education.

The closer we become to accepting everyone as an equal and understanding other cultures, the closer we become to changing our views on bilingual education.

1958
National Defense Education Act

In response to Sputnik and realizing how important language is, America passed the National Defense Education Act on September 2, 1958.

NDAE provided funds to schools to improve their mathematics, science, and modern (Russian not Latin) foreign language departments

It pushed the importance of higher education.

1963
Coral Way and Cuban Refugees

Began in Dade County, Florida in the Spring of 1963

The 1st public school to have a bilingual bicultural education program for English and Spanish speakers in the U.S.

The program was started as a response to the thousands of Cuban refugees fleeing Cuba during and after Castro's revolution.

Operation Pedro Pan

Basically, the first Dual Language School because it allowed children who spoke English or Spanish

Effects on
Bilingual Education

U.S. began to see the importance of bilingual education

Began to push foreign language learning in schools.

Also began to value those who were bilingual

Effects on
Bilingual Education

The influx of Cuban refugees in Miami during the Revolution created a need for a school that would accommodate all the children.

They also saw the benefit and need to be able to keep their heritage language and culture.

Highlighted the benefit of letting Spanish and English speakers learn together and from each other

The program was called Bilingual-bicultural education and was added to the Bilingual Education Law of 1968

1965
Elementary & Secondary Education Act

Passed on April 9, 1965

President Lyndon B. Johnson, a former teacher, pushed for this bill to be passed just 3 months after it was introduced

Was a part of his "War on Poverty" campaign and he truly believed that all children should have the same access to education.

Being a former teacher, he understood that education was vital to break the poverty cycle and children need to be given the chance to change their futures.

Title I funding is a huge part of ESEA and these funds helped those schools with a high population of low income children

“it will offer new hope to tens of thousands of youngsters who need attention before they ever enroll in the first grade,” and will help “five million children of poor families overcome their greatest barrier to progress: poverty.”

Effects on
Bilingual Education

ESEA was an important event for the education of students who otherwise were forgotten.

This act may not have a direct effect on Bilingual Education but it led the way and opened the door for the Bilingual Education Act of 1968, which you will learn more about later :)

1965
Immigration Act
Coral Way
Classrooms
1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964

Passed on July 2, 1964

This bill outlawed segregation in businesses, in public places, like schools, and discrimination in employment practices.

Effects on
Bilingual Education

Title VI of the Civil Rights Act ties into Bilingual Education based on discrimination.

It prohibits the discrimination of people based on race, color, and national origins from programs and things that receive funds from the U.S. government.

Since most schools receive funding from the government, they could no longer discriminate against children based on skin color.

Not be able to discriminate against skin color meant not being able to discriminate against a spoken first language as well.

This means that all children were allowed the same access to educational programs

Title VI paved the way for the Lau vs. Nichols case in 1974, which you will learn more about later :)


President Johnson signed the bill on October 3, 1965

Was created to replace the "quota" system that was established in 1921

The "quota" system was considered racist because they only existed for southern and eastern Europeans.

In addition to ending the "quota" system, it focused on family reunification and job skills

Effects on
Bilingual Education

There was an influx of immigrants, especially from Asian countries since the ban was lifted.

Saw the need to be able to teach these kids.

There are now dual language schools for Spanish, Mandarin, and French.

References

http://www.uscourts.gov/educational-resources/get-involved/federal-court-activities/mendez-westminster-re-enactment/mendez-westminster-background.aspx
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mendez_v._Westminster
http://www.texasbar.com/civics/High%20School%20cases/mendez-v-westminster.html
http://www.umich.edu/~ac213/student_projects05/be/legislation.html
http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/society/national-defense-education-act.html
http://npaphistory.wikispaces.com/National+Defense+Education+Act
http://www.npr.org/2011/10/25/141584947/in-miami-school-aims-for-bi-literate-education
http://wlrn.org/post/se-habla-espanol-pioneering-bilingual-ed-miamis-coral-way-elementary
http://www.socialwelfarehistory.com/events/elementary-and-secondary-education-act-of-1965/
http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=97

References Continued
http://education.uslegal.com/bilingualism/landmark-legislation/the-civil-rights-act-1964/
http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/osi04.soc.ush.civil.mendez/mendez-v-westminster-desegregating-californias-schools/
http://sylviamendezinthemendezvswestminster.com/aboutus.html
http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/pearl-harbor
http://www.ushistory.org/us/51e.asp
http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/japanese-american-relocation
http://www.infoplease.com/spot/internment1.html
http://www.umich.edu/~ac213/student_projects05/be/legislation.html
http://leagle.com/decision/194792674FSupp852_1694.xml/MO%20HOCK%20KE%20LOK%20PO%20v.%20STAINBACK
http://www.nps.gov/brvb/index.htm
http://www.uscourts.gov/educational-resources/get-involved/federal-court-activities/brown-board-education-re-enactment/history.aspx
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_brown.html
http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2007/10/how-sputnik-changed-u-s-education/

Still References
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/sputnik-launched
http://history.nasa.gov/sputnik/
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/404717/National-Defense-Education-Act-NDEA
http://www.jstor.org/stable/3585754
http://uanews.org/story/how-coral-way-florida-made-history-two-languages
http://www.npr.org/2011/10/25/141584947/in-miami-school-aims-for-bi-literate-education
http://uair.library.arizona.edu/item/273749
http://www.justice.gov/crt/about/cor/coord/titlevi.php
http://education.uslegal.com/bilingualism/landmark-legislation/the-civil-rights-act-1964/
http://library.uwb.edu/guides/USimmigration/1965_immigration_and_nationality_act.html
http://cis.org/1965ImmigrationAct-MassImmigration
http://www1.cuny.edu/portal_ur/content/immigrants_curriculum/7_8_pdfs/unit1_lesson4.pdf

Linda's father wanted her to attend a school that was only four blocks away but because she was black, she had to ride the bus for five miles to the all black school.
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