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(9) World Religions: Judaism
Transcript of (9) World Religions: Judaism
Seafaring people who dominated trade in the eastern Mediterranean from about 2000 to 1400 b.c.e.
They lived on Crete, a large island on the southern edge of the Aegean Sea (Minoan culture had an enormous influence on Greece)
produced some of the finest painted pottery, swords, figurines, and vessels of precious metals. The often traded
: the Minoan capital city-
Ruled by King Minos
: The Minoan civilization finally ended about1200 b.c. The reasons for its end are unclear. Could it have been the result of some natural disaster? Did the island become overpopulated? Or was it overrun by invaders?
The Phoenicians & Judaism
Phoenician traders by their travels made
crucial contributions to world civilization.
At nearly the same time, another eastern Mediterranean people, the Jews, were creating a religious tradition that has lasted for more than 3,000 years.
Phoenician trade was upset when their eastern cities were captured by
Assyrians in 842 b.c.e.
then --> the
then --> the
empire of King Cyrus I.
: Modern day Israel and Palestine.
[it lays between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean]-was the ancient home of the Hebrews.
: Most of what we know about the early history of the Hebrews is contained in the torah. The Torah is the holy book for the Hebrews. [The Torah is know to Christians as the Old Testament]
: to be the “father,” or first, of the Hebrew people.
The Torah says that Abraham was a shepherd who lived in the city of
Ur, in Mesopotamia
. The Torah tells that God commanded him to move his people and their flocks to
around 2000 b.c.e. to the lower
Tigris and Euphrates
region. Then, by1650 b.c.e., the descendants of Abraham moved again—this time to
Monotheism and Judaism
: the belief in one God- in the beginning the Jewish people referred to God as Yahweh. [belief in a single god, comes from the Greek words mono, meaning “one” and theism, meaning “god-worship.”]
To the Hebrews, God was not a physical being, and no physical images were to be made of him.
The Hebrews asked God for protection from their enemies, God had promised to protect Abraham and his descendants.
This mutual promise between God and the founder of the Hebrew people is called a covenant.
The Bible says the Hebrews migrated to Egypt because of a drought and threat of a famine. At first, the Hebrews were given places of honor in the Egyptian kingdom. Later, however, they were forced into slavery, their lives made “bitter with hard service, in mortar and brick, and in all kinds of work in the field.” (Exodus 1:14)
The Struggles of the Jewish People
The Hebrews fled Egypt—perhaps between 1300 and 1200 B.C. Jews call this event “the Exodus
”- this is celebrated by the Jewish people as Passover
The Torah says that the man who led the Hebrews out of slavery was named
According to the Torah while traveling, Moses climbed to the top of a mountain—
—to pray. The Torah says he spoke with God. When Moses came down from Mount Sinai, he brought down two stone tablets on which God had written ten laws, the
are rules/promises or covenants for life given by God to Moses on Mount Sinai to give to the People of Israel- basis for the civil and religious laws of Judaism.
Kingdom of Israel
After the death of Moses from about 1020 to 922 b.c., the Hebrews united under three able kings:
Saul, David, and Solomon
. The new kingdom was called
Solomon was the most powerful of the Hebrew kings. He built a trading empire and beautified
the capital city of Jerusalem- where he built The Great Synagogue (place of worship) of Jerusalem
Solomon’s building projects required high taxes and badly strained the kingdom’s finances. After Solomon’s death, the Jews in the northern part of the kingdom—geographically distant from the south—revolted.
Disaster finally struck as the independence of the two kingdoms was lost -by 722, the whole northern
kingdom had fallen to the Assyrians
Spread of Trade and Civilization
About 1100 B.C., after Crete’s decline, the most powerful traders along the Mediterranean were the
(remarkable shipbuilders and seafarers.)
: Modern-day Lebanon
Phoenicians never united into a country- instead they had city-states
: is a state that contains an independent city which is not administered or governed by another government [ex: Vatican City]
: Byblos, Tyre, and Sidon, were important trading centers.
along the coasts of
Africa, Sicily, Sardinia, and Spain.
The colonies strung out like beads on a chain about 30 miles apart—about the distance a Phoenician ship could sail in a day.
The greatest Phoenician colony was at
in North Africa. [Settlers from Tyre founded Carthage in about 725 b.c.]
They traded goods from other lands-
wine, weapons, precious metals, ivory, and slaves.
was produced from the murex, a kind of snail that lived in the waters off Sidon and Tyre.
Phoenicians needed a way of recording transactions clearly and quickly- Phoenician system was phonetic—that is, one sign was used for one sound. (Fun fact: the word alphabet comes directly from the first two letters of the
Phoenician alphabet: aleph and beth.
Following WWII and the Holocaust-In May 1948, Israel became an independent state after Israel was recognized by the United Nations as a country in its own right within the Middle East.
The Israel Defense Forces differs from most armed forces in the world. National military service is mandatory for all Israeli citizens over the age of 18
Current Prime Minister of Israel is Benjamin Netanyahu
Writing in the Torah
Major Jewish Holidays
- literally meaning "head of the year" is the Jewish New Year
- Rosh Hashanah customs include sounding the shofar (a hollowed-out ram's horn) and eating symbolic foods such as apples dipped in honey to evoke a "sweet new year".
-also known as Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year for the Jewish people.
-On this day forgiveness of sins is also asked of God- fast from Shabbat [is the Jewish day of rest and seventh day of the week](Friday Night) to sun down (Saturday Night)
Hanukah/ Chanukah/ Hanukkah (three different spellings- mean same thing)-
-also known as the Festival of Lights
-is an eight-day Jewish holiday commemorating the re-dedication and rebuilding of the Holy Temple in Jerusalem
-menorah: a nine-branched candelabrum lit during the eight-day holiday of Hanukkah
-The Jewish people celebrate Passover as a commemoration of their liberation over 3,300 years ago by God from slavery in ancient Egypt that was ruled by the Pharaohs, and their freedom as a nation under the leadership of Moses.
So why do we have religions?
Difference between Exodus and Diaspora
: refers exclusively to the repeated scattering of the
away from the Kingdom of Judea (Cannan)
: refers to
mass departure of people especially emigrants