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The Journey of Jazz and Blues

Unit 4
by

Simon Robilliard

on 11 February 2015

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Transcript of The Journey of Jazz and Blues

The journey of Jazz and Blues
C.1900 - 1950
Pre 1900
Blues and Ragtime
Dixieland
Big Bands
Spirituals
Religious Songs
Created by Slaves
Usually Acapella or using percussion
Use of call and responce
Slow moving harmony
4 Square Rhythm
Portamento
Glissando
Blue notes
Vocals
Solo piano
Stride left hand
Running quavers/semi's
Accompaniment to film/theatre
Syncopation
Aural Traditions
Simple Harmony (7th chords)
Larger bands
There are few, famous artists whose names stick out. Maybe this is
due to their lack of identity as slaves.

"Only one person had to start singing and the whole bunch would fall
in line. Now, these in this section might be singin spirituals, and these,
in this section might be singing the blues. Or just humming, not singing
any particular words. Just a tune." (Pleasant 'Cousin Joe' Joseph)

"They are described as singing in unison in the fields; incoherent,
unintelligible words, in one recurring monotonous, short strain of
harmony, eddying around a minor chord, as they may in fact be heard
in any field or street gang today"
Improvising
Aural tradition
Louis Armstrong
Billie Holiday
Links to brass band
Scott Joplin
Debussy
Original Dixieland Jazz Band
(from left), drummer Tony Sbarbaro (aka Tony Spargo), trombonist Edwin "Daddy" Edwards, cornetist Dominick James "Nick" LaRocca, clarinetist Larry Shields, and pianist Henry Ragas
Made their first recording in 1917. They were racially mixed! They billed themselves as the creators of jazz, due to the fact they were the first commercially recorded band! They took New York by storm in 1917 and were touring in London by 1919! They broke up during the great depressin (1920s) reforming in mid 1930s.
Jelly Roll Moreton
W.C. Handy
Jack Teagarden
Earl Fuller
Louis Armstrong
Dixie Land Vocab
Horns
Rhythm Section
Tailgating
Front Line
Improvising
Polyphonic
2 or 4 to the bar
Trad Jazz
1920's
1930s and later
The early 'Big Band' consisted of
10-25 musicians. The music consisted of
very little improvisation, prefering to mainly score the parts strictly, arranging popular music for performance in dance halls. The band might consist of strings as well as brass and rhythm. The bands specialised in smooth, silky and romantic melody.
Paul Whiteman
James Wolfe
James last
were 3 famous big band leaders
of this time.
The later big bands became more sophisticated in their musical endeavors. They featured more improvisation and the use of talented soloists to fill these spaces. The bands were to appeal to a smaller audience, predominantly performed by black musicians. Notable band leaders were Fletcher Henderson and Duke Ellington. The arrangements tended to be 'looser' and improvised.
Cotton Club
Joe 'King' Oliver had a band that played half arranged and half improvised music.
1941 film
Bebop!
Fast Tempo
Instrumental Virtuosity
Improvisation along chords and harmonic structure
Communication between the musicians
Drugs and Alcohol
'On the Road' Jack Kerouac
Excess and Brilliance
Development for the sake of development?
John Coltrane
Charlie 'Bird' Parker
Coleman Hawkins
Straying from the natural resolutions
Double time phrases
Size of ensemble
Mature sound
Lengthy improvisation sections
Challenging melody that follows the contour of the chord sequence.
Scalic/arpeggic Improvsation based upon the chord sequesnce communication wth the rest of the band.
Organic
Clever harmonic substitutions.
Miles Davis
Orchestral Music Vs Jazz and Blues
Some composers who worked mainly in the classical genre were heavily influenced by the development of Jazz music.
George Antheil composed 'A Jazz symphony' This was origionally to be premiered in 1927 along side George Gershwins Rhapsody in Blue .
'A Jazz symphony' combines many elemets of 'Jazz' music including obvious syncopation, dischordant harmonies and brassy instrumentation. It was deemed to radical for the concert and was not performed until 1955 after being re-orchestrated. It was conducted by W. C Handy.
The work was influenced by the cutting edge 'New York' Jazz and inspired by the freeness of Creole and New Orleans.
Darius Milhaud - Heard authentic jazz on the streets of Harlem in 1922. He was inspired greatly by the freeness of the music and composed 'La Creation du Monde' It uses many ideas and idioms from the Jazz scene. His music often contains polytonality. His students include Dave Brubeck and Burt Bacharach
Malcolm Arnold was influenced instrumentally, composing a Harmonica concerto. It was written in 1954 for Larry Adler. It was the first of a group of 'serious' pieces for the instrument
Prelude, Fugue and Riffs. Composed by Bernstein is heavily influenced by the stylistic aspects of 'jazz' music. It is a 'written-out' jazz composition for jazz ensemble and solo clarinet. Prelude and Fugue are both baroque forms, followed immediately by the 'riffs' which is a Jazz idiom for a short melodic idea. it was completed in 1949 for Woody Hermans Big Band.
Louis Armstrong (Tim)
Bessie Smith
W.C Handy (Alex)
Billie Holliday
Bessie Smith was one of the greatest blues singers sometimes referred to as "the empress of the blues" before her untimely death in a car accident in 1937.

In 1923 She recorded her first song 'downhearted Blues' which was a big hit.
What features of blues music can you hear in this recording?


Her voice has a raw quality. She sang with a great deal of emotion. This was helped by her own experience of hard times. Swagger, boombing voice and showmanship were all trademarks of Bessie Smith.



Bessie was singing on street corners from an early age to help with family expences. Her parents died when she was 9. When she was working as a dancer she met Ma Rainey (Gertrude Pridgett). Ma was a business woman and performer who was very influential in leading Bessie to become one of the highest paid performers of the time ($2000 a week) Her career was hit hard by the depression in 1929-34.
Handy was born in November 16 1873 in Florence, Alabama.
Handy is also known as the father of blues.
Handy was an educated musician whao used folk material in his compositions. he was scrupulous in documenting the sources of his works, which frequenntly combined stylistic influences from several performers. he loved this folk musical form and brought his own tranforming touch to it. whilst Handy was not the first to publish musci in the blues form, he took the blues form a regional music style with a limited audience to on eof the dominant forces in American music.
Handy bought his first guitar when he got an apprentciship in carpentry, sheomakign and plastering.
He was also married and had 6 chidren the meet whilst Handy was performing at a barbecue in Henderson.
Handy was a acompished pianist, cornet player, trumpet and volcalest.
Handy also tought music at Mechanical University, and he became a back band director who was organzied by the Knights of Pythias.
Handy played with the Dixiland Band who were Jelly Roll Morton, W.C Handy, Jack Teagorden, Earl Fuller and Louis Armstrong.
As a young child, he displayed a keen interest in music and his intuitive ear could catalog the musical notes of songbirds, the whistles from nearby river boats, and even the rhythms of the Tennessee River. However, musical talent, especially the playing of musical instruments, was frowned upon by his family and church.
Handy influenced most of the modern jazz and blues because he combined differnt aspects of differnt jazz music such as the spiritules and the folk .
Handy had a big impact on the world of jazz because he was known as the father of blues so he made a huge impact on the modern jazz and blues.
Billie Holiday grew up in Jazz rich Baltimore in the 1920's.

Used to sing in Jazz clubs and brothels, sung along to Bessie smith and Louis Armstrong.

Then moved to New York and got a job at Harlem night clubs.

Performed the songs she learnt in the clubs she used to play at.

Father was in Fletcher Henderson Band and performed on clubs.

Her neighbour was a tenor sax player called Kenneth Hollan, they performed in clubs together from 1929 to 1931.

in 1933 she replaced a singer in a club and was heard by John Hammond, he made her first record as part of a group led by Benny Goodman.

The recording 'Your Mothers son in Law' only sold 300 copies but 'Riffin' the scotch sold 5000..
1930's Holiday was recording with columbia records when she was introduced to the song 'strange fruit'.

After performing this song in a night club she said it reminded her too much of how her fathers died.

Columbia records thought it was too sensitive to record but a man called Milt Gabler agreed to record it on Commodore records.

This song remained in her repatoire for 20 years and became one of her biggest selling records - the equivilant of a top 20 hit in the 1930s'
The song "God Bless the Child" became Holiday's most popular and covered record. It reached number 25 on the record charts in 1941 and ranked third in Billboard's top songs of the year, selling over a million records .

In 1976 the song was added to the Grammy Hall of Fame.She was invited on the Artie Shaw Show and was one of the first black women to work with a white orchestra.

1942, Holiday recorded "Trav'lin Light" with Paul Whiteman. Because she was still under contract with Columbia records, she couldn't release the song under her own name and instead used the pseudonym "Lady Day".

She carried on performing and recording all the way through to the late 1950's. Having hits such as 'What is this Thing Called Love'

She never had any technical training and never learnt to read music.

Her vocal style was influenced by the way jazz instruments were played, she pioneered a new way of phrasing.

Because she was not trained her voice began to get more rugged

Frank sinatra was influenced by her performances.

Got her name from film Star Billie Dove, her real name is Eleanora Fagan.

One of the greatest Jazz voices of all time.
W.C. HANDY’S MEMPHIS BLUES BAND
16 recordings never released before of W.C. Handy and His Memphis Blues Band. All tracks recorded in 1917, 1922 and 1923.
Memphis Archives, 1994.

LOUIS ARMSTRONG PLAYS W.C. HANDY
16 recordings by Louis Armstrong of the W.C. Handy catalog recorded on July 12-14, 1954 and October 19, 1956. Guest artists include Velma Middleton, Trummy Young, Barney Bigard, Billy Kyle, Arvell Shaw and Barrett Deems. Collection originally released in 1956.
Legacy Recordings # 64925, 1999.
RESPECT: WOMEN IN MUSIC5-Disc collection of the hit recordings by women from the 1910 through 1998. Compilation was nominated for a 2001 Grammy Award for Best Historical Album. Tracks include Marion Harris’ 1921 top five recording “Beale Street Blues.”Rhino Records # 75815, 1999.BESSIE SMITH: THE FINAL CHAPTERPart of the Legacy Records Roots N’ Blues series. All tracks recorded between 1925 and 1933 with Bobby Johnson, Charlie Dixon, Charlie Green, Benny Goodman, Jack Teagarden, Clarence Williams and Billy Taylor. Tracks include Ms. Smith’s #5 hit recording from 1925, “Careless Love.”Legacy Recordings # 57546, 1996.
HOTEL ASTOR ROOF 1942Harry James, with guest artists Helen Forrest, Corky Corcoran, Jack Jee and Al Friede. All tracks recorded live at the Hotel Astor in New York during August and September 1942. Tracks include the top ten hit song from 1914, “Memphis Blues.”Storyville # 2067, 2000.THE ROARING TWENTIES: WHEN MY BABY SMILES AT MECollection of the top 24 recordings from 1920. Tracks include Marion Harris’ #1 recording of “St. Louis Blues.”Living Era # 5520, 2002.IS EVERYBODY HAPPY?Ted Lewis with guest artists Fats Waller, Benny Goodman, Sophie Tucker, Mugsy Spanier, Jimmy Dorsey and Frank Teschemacher. Tracks include Lewis’ #4 hit from 1930 of “Yellow Dog Blues.”ASV Recordings # 5273, 1999.
Handy started out as an organ player in school but he moved onto the cornet. He didn't tell his parents that he was playing it, he borrowed a cornet from a fellow band member. Handy was also a writer as well as a musician.
1901 - 1971
Born in New Orleans - grew up surrounded by jazz and witnessed its evolution first hand
Raised in poverty
Exposed to Zydeco music (found almost solely in Lousiana) at an early age - unique influences to his later style
Life
Musical Abilites and Style
Trumpeter (originally cornet player) and singer (also experimented with the trombone)
One of the first jazz musicians to perform long, improvised trumpet solos
Sang in a style that imitates a trumpet solo with melody-based improvisational additions, as well as scat singing
Trumpet improvisations were very melodic and often simple, but revolutionary at the time
Recordings in the 20s often had missed notes and slight mistakes in - he was playing things that were right on the very borders of his ability
Incorperated many influences, such as Creole and Appalachian folk, that weren't included by any other jazz musicians of the time
Fellow Musicians and Musical Experiences
1920
1932
Started in Joe 'King' Oliver's 'Creole Jazz Band' in Chicago playing second cornet
Played in Fletcher Henderson's band for a year in New York - switched to trumpet to fit better with the instrumentation
1924
Returned to Chicago to play in bigger orchestras (also played in church concerts so as to improve his technical skills)
1925
1947
Hot Five and Hot Seven for Okeh records
1929
In the pit orchestra for the 'Hot Chocolate' musical (by Fats Waller) in New York
Played at the New Cotton Club in Los Angeles with Lionel Hampton (drums)
1930
Toured Europe
Moved back to New York permenantly
1943
The All Stars (1947) with Jack Teagarden and other big Dixieland/Big Band musicians
Influences
Creole and Zydeco roots
Professor Peter Davis taught him in the late 1910s
Joe 'King' Oliver was his mentor up until 1924
Played with Sidney Bechet for a while, who was one of the few considered his equal in both technique and improvisational ideas
Followers
Heavily influenced Coleman Hawkins when part of the Fletcher Henderson Orchestra
Duke Ellington's Orchestra would go to his performances to watch him
One of the first to record a song with scat singing, and the one to make it so popular with the public
Recording techniques with the new ribbon microphones in 1931 gave birth to the sound of later singers such as Bing Crosby
Helped out with Dave Brubeck's jazz musical 'The Real Ambassadors' in the late 50s
Notable Recordings
'West End Blues' (1928) - the eight bar solo near the end of the record is thought to be 'one of the finest recordings in jazz history' and the introduction is 'one of the most influencial improvisations to date'













'Lazy River' (1931) - set the standard for jazz vocal improvisation










'Just One More Chance' (1931) - shows his definitive vocal style
'Satch Plays Fats' and 'Louis Armstrong Plays W.C. Handy' (an album of songs by Fats Waller and W.C. Handy, respectively) (1954) - considered some of his last great creative recordings
Other Notable Recordings
1927 - Louis Armstrong and the Hot 7 - Potato Head Blues. Recorded with the temporary addition of Tuba and Drums, to make the Hot 5 into 7.
1917 - Original Dixieland Jazz Band - Tiger Rag
Kid Ory - Very important Trombonist who made his own instruments.
1929 - Louis Armstrong and Bessie Smith - St Louis Blues.
1939 - Moonlight Serenade - Glenn Millers Hit, demonstrating the 'new sound' that was being created. The thicker textures and deeper harmony.
1945 - KoKo - Charlie Parker - Marketed as ' the greatest Jazz session ever'
Spirituals
Ragtime
Dixieland
Blues
Big Band
Minor tonality
Slow pulse
Dissonances
Open Harmony
Syncopation
1922 - New Orleans Rhythm Kings - Bugle Call Rag.
1923 - New Orleans Rhythm Kings - Tin Roof Blues
Stride Bass (4 to the bar)
Faster moving melody played using chromatisism and octaves.
Syncopation
Improvisatory (Aural tradition)
Simple and functional modulation (Dominant and Sub Dom)
Clear structures
Contrasting Dynamics
Glissandos - Blue notes - groups of 5+ instrumentalists - Square bass feel - Chromatisism - Basic chord sequences (I, IV, V) - Weaving melody in high pitch range - Syncopation - Clear structure - Improvisation -
1939 - Glenn Miller - In the mood!
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