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Los sistemas de educación superior en el mundo
Transcript of Los sistemas de educación superior en el mundo
Other assessment procedures – example: RAE Two views on consequences of integration
Convergence thesis – emphasis on common international trends
Path dependency thesis – emphasis on national peculiarities Higher Education Systems and higher education in the World Ivar Bleiklie
Introduction Dimensions for organizing and steering higher education systems
Purpose of higher education and the shaping of higher education systems
Tensions and instability caused by competing ideas
How individual institutions may respond to systemic integration – the example of Norway
Implications of mass education for the concept of knowledge Design requirements for systemic design Provide education on a massive scale
For a large section of the population
In a coherent manner
In flexible manner allowing it to adapt to changing and diverse needs 1. Dimensions of Higher Education systems Functions and horizontal differentiation (different tasks, equal status)
Hierarchies and vertical differentiation (common standards, different status based on level of degrees, selective admission, reputation) Example II – Shanghai ranking Quality of education: 1) Number of alumni that have won the Nobel Prize or other important mathematics prizes
Quality of faculty: 2) Number of faculty that have won the Nobel Prize or other important mathematics prizes. 3) Citations of researchers in 21 disciplines
Research output: 4) Published articles in Nature & Science. 5) Articles in Web of Science (SCI Expanded & SSCI Expanded).
Size of institution: 6) Academic achievement in light of size. Convergence thesis – two reasons for more hierarchical integration The level of education in the population affects the competitiveness of a nation
Higher education systems need to be flexible in order to be efficient Path dependency thesis – four reasons for continued horizontal diversity Institutions are diverse and may not comply with public policy
Institutions may adopt different strategies
National systems are different in terms of hierarchy
Knowledge have gained new importance 2. Purpose of higher education and relations to labor market Specialist principle: Learning particular occupational skill – knowledge is what you need to do the job
Generalist principle: Learning an academic discipline – general skill to plan, work analytically, indepently more important on labor market Impact of principles vary according to: Discipline: arts and science vs. medicine, law, engineering, short cycle vocational college education
Time: 1980s emphasis on relevant occupational education. 1990s emphasis on generalist education
Country: German tradition vs. Anglo tradition Variation in emphasis – an element of social construction (Teichler 1988) Hierarchical systems (Japan)
Binary system, permeability between sectors (UK, Norway, Germany)
Supplemented binary system with third further education sector (Australia)
Heterogenous system, elite training, short cycle, socializing, academic sectors (France)
Clearly distinct university and non-university sectors (Netherlands) 3. Tensions and instability Example: breakdown of binary systems
Tension between academic knowledge and specialist labor market needs
Varying reform emphasis regarding requirement for professional skills (e.g. in teacher and engineering education) 4. Integration and Institutional responses Two forms of integration:
Unified degree and qualification structures
Increased vertical diversity based on criteria of research universities
Implication: opportunities for non-university institutions in arts and sciences, problems for short cycle professional education 5. Mass education and the concept of knowledge - the larger context Massification of higher education
Proliferation of research
New employer needs for research and researchers
Increased influence of research and scientific values
Stronger pressure on higher education institutions to provide socially useful knowledge Implication Higher education more integrated in a steadily wider array of activities and settings in society
Higher education exposed to a steadily wider sets of interests and knowledge criteria
Ideas about what is important and useful knowledge is likely to become more diverse Three questions confronting policy makers Hierarchy - mechanisms
Accreditation – formal recognition of institution as provider of education at a certain minimum level (organized nationally or by discipline internationally)
Ranking – identifying and sepaprating the best from the rest (Shanghai, THE, US News & World Report) Example – US News and World Report Ranking criteria for institutions and departments
percentage of PhD holders among faculty
selectivity at entry
achievement levels of students
professional success of graduates
reputation of researchers
+++ Integration – two movements Increased comprehensivenes – inclusion of more diverse sets of institutions and educations
increased horizontal diversity
Increased mutual contact, competition between institutions
pressure to define relations between institutions leads to increased vertical diversity How should the relationship between the institutions be organized?
Along what dimensions should the integration take place?
What are the proper procedures by which integration ought to take place?