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Ethical And Legal Constraints Within The media Sector
Transcript of Ethical And Legal Constraints Within The media Sector
I am going to talk about the ethical and legal considerations of three media industries the Internet, Film and TV. Ethical issues are opinion based which is to do with representations and stereotypes morals, taste and decency, social issues and sensitivities for example representations of gender. Legal issues are issues which are against the law the content, interpretation and application of laws relating to media for example Films Act 1985. Censorship is cutting and banning, regulation which is controlling rules over media institutions and classification is the age certifications and ratings also connects to both ethical and legal.
Ethical And Legal Consideration For The Internet
The ethical concerns within the Internet are webs designers making sure that there websites are fine for peoples with color blindness. Blind people access a programme called the screen reader
Flash websites because screen readers cant read them as well as all the texts are images
Subtitling visual content videos inline
WC3 people who suggests standards within the Internet
No one censors the web in the UK
Child exploitations and online protection center
Users censor the internet
Ethical And Legal Considerations For Film
Legal And Ethical Considerations For TV
Watershed 9:00 more adult content
Racism which comes under Taste & Decency which can be offensive as well can Incitement To Hatred because you may also tell someone to hate a particular race.
Child pornography which comes under The Protection of children Act.
Violence which comes under Taste & Decency which can be harmful.
Human Rights Act 1998 which guaranties human rights such as rights to life rights to human expression.
The licensing Act 2003 is the prevention of crime and disorder, public safety, the prevention of public nuisance and the protection of children from harm
The Video recordings Act 1984 which means all films need to be classified includes films, TV programmes and video games
The obscene Publications Act 1959 & 1964 where a work is obscene if, taken as a whole it has a tendency to deprave and corrupt (ie make morally bad) a significant proportion of those likely to see it
Criminal justice And immigration Act 2008 where it is illegal to be a possesion of an extreme pornography image which is grossly offensive, discusting or otherwise of an obscene character
The Protection of Children Act 1978 where it is illegal to make, distribute show possess indecent photographs of a child.
The sexual Offences Act 2003 where it is illegal to expose oneself with intent to cause distress
The Public Order Act 1986 where it is illegal to distribute the public a recording of visual images or sounds which are threatening, abusive or insulting if the intention is to strip racial hatred
The Cinematography Films (Animals) Act 1937 where it is illegal to show any scene 'organised or directed' for the purpose of the film that involves actual cruelty to animals.
The Animal Welfare Act 2006 where it is illegal to show with intent to supply a video recording of an 'animal fight'
The Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act 2002 where it is illegal to publish a tobacco advertisement.
What is W3C?
W3C is a international community where member organization, a full time staff, and the public work together to develop web standards which allows web accessable for blind people. This is ethical but can be prosicate people through legislation.
How blind people access the internet?
Blind people access the internet through two ways screen readers which they only hear the sound and also braille reader which displays hardware that enable users to read in baille the text displayed on the computer screen. People with disability of blidness can only read the text by using the braille but cannot read the text in the form of images, or flash.
Magiure made a complaint that to the human rights and equal opportunity commission arguing that blind people couldn't access the SOCOG.
In the Sydney oganising committee for the olympic games case study Tom Worthington responded that "SOCOG include Alt texts all images and image maps links on the SOCOG website, SOCOG ensure that I can access the index of sports from the schedule page, SOCOG ensure that I can access the results tables that will be used on the SOCOG website during the Olympics"
The Legislation is that the Human Rights and Equal opportunities commission was that SOCOG's website was inaccessible with regards to the commonwealth disability discrimination Act 1992, which the Vancouver Olympics got wrong and the Athens got right.
The Magiure VS. Sydney Olympics Organising Committee
Color Blindness is the inability to treat or recognise the difference between certain colors. A person with color blindness has trouble seeing the colors red, green blue or even those colors mixed. The most common type are red and green where both colors are seen similar.
What Is Broadcasting Code?
Broadcasting Code is a set of codes which was made by OFCOM. OFCOM give out licenses to TV and Radio stations in order to allow them to broadcast. I they broke too many codes, OFCOM would shut down the channel.
The Broadcasting Code is the following:
Incitement To Hatred
Taste & Decency (Harmful Or Offensive)
Honesty; Truthful' Fairness; Accuracy; Impartiality
Representation Of Criminal Acts
Removal of licence
And possibly Referral to the CPS/ Police for prosecution
The TV programme Right To Die broadcasting on Sky 1 includes footage of people help to commit suicide. From the case study of Assisted suicide TV show controversy Neil Midgley who is a TV and Radio editor stated that "methods of suicide and self harm must not be included in programmes except where they are editoraly justified and are also justified by the context. This comes under Representation Of Criminal Acts because it is essentially showing people how to commit a crime; suicide. The possible outcome of this would be referral to the CPS/ Police for prosecution.
The Joy of The Teen Sex is a british TV show on Channel 4 that explores the of teenagers and Sex. It is about a group of teenagers having sex under aged. It includes sexual experiences, sexual health, trends and relationship issues. This comes under Morality becasue some people felt that young people were exploited for the purpose of entertainment and were asked to talk about sensitive issues. It comes under child protection aswell becuase anyone under 18 need to be protected and the show could be seen to exploit them. Also it comes under as well as Representation Of Criminal Acts because it is a crime having sex underage. The possible outcome of this would be referral to the CPS/ Police for prosecution.
Because of the video recordings act all films are classified into the following categories U, PG, 12A, 12, 15, 18 and R18 Restricted, this is to do with the content within the film such as discrimination, drugs, horror, imitable behavour, language, nudity, sex, theme and violence.
An example of a film that involves sexual content is The ketchup Effect. In one of the scenes involves two characters in a room the character Sophie with a lad. Sophie was asked for a blow job. When she refuses, he asks for a hand job, taking out his penis and instruct her to think of the way she uses a ketchup bottle. Her way of putting ketchup on her fries is to give the bottle a couple of hefty whacks with her palm, which results in a painful experience for the lad. For this amusing scene the movie has an 18 certificate. This is because of the protection of children act, where they have to pretend that the characters are 18 but they're not.
According to research published by the Thorax, Dr Andrea Waylen stated that "more than half the films" shown in the UK that contain smoking are related 15 or below" so children and young teenagers are exposed. Those who had seen the most films in which smoking was shown on screen are from the films Spider-man, Bridget Jones and The Matrix. Director David Cooke stated that "glamourisng smoking has been included as a classification issue in our published classification guidelines. There is however, no public support for automatically classifying, for instance, a PG film at 18 just because it happens to contain a scene of smoking" Five films that children might be banned from viewing if smoking attracted an 18 certificate are Lord Of the Rings trilogy (2001-2003) , 101 Dalmations (1996), Peter Pan (1953), Alice Wonderland (1951) and Pinocchio (1940). This is an ethical issue however the films was seened to be encouraging people to smoke then it would fit under The Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act 2002.
Ofcom recieved 164 complaints that the Joy of Teen Sex exploited young people because they had discussions which included images and language which were too graphic and glamourised drinking and the use of illegal drugs.
Thank You For watching my presentation!
UNIT 7 LO2
Understanding Ethical And Legal Constraints Within The Media Sector