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Lesson 6-7 Practice Methods & Guidance

AS OCR Acquiring Movement Skills

Joe Crane

on 9 September 2016

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Transcript of Lesson 6-7 Practice Methods & Guidance

Practice Methods
Mark schemes...
Methods of Physical Practice
Candidates should be able:
methods of
physical practice
(massed; distributed; fixed; varied)

the role of
mental practice
physical practice

the appropriate use of
practice methods
to maximise effectiveness (for different ability levels and for different activities; classification of skills; schema theory)

critically the
different types of practice methods
and their
application to the performance of movement skills
Physical practice Vs Mental rehearsal/practice
Critical evaluation of practice methods
Jan 2010 PPQ…..
Explain the role of mental practice in the performance of movement skills
Case study example
Tennis serves were performed by three groups of athletes after a period of either mental, physical or mental and physical practice together.
The performers who did distributed practice had most success.
There was little difference between the other two groups showing that mental practice alone is nearly as good as actually physically practicing.
However the best results were achieved when a combination of the two were used.

Holly Bleasdale GB Pole Vaulter: "I didn't have a psychological problem, I just thought working with a psychologist would benefit me.

"We've worked on a video montage, it's on my iPod and it's just a mixture of photos and videos that remind me of when I've competed well.

"I have a favourite song and I can just watch that when I need some motivation."

She added: "The song is all about increasing your performance, it's about the rise, you have to climb.”
Examples of performers who use mental practice..
Former Manchester United goalkeeper Ben Foster made headlines in 2009 when he used an iPod for video replays of opponents’ spot kicks during a Carling Cup Final penalty shoot-out.
The role of mental practice & rehearsal
Mental practice or rehearsal involves
creating a mental picture
or image of the skill where
the performer visualises the movement
without physical movement occurring.
So how does this apply to your spec.....?
Critical evaluation
EQ example...
In addition to all theses uses when asked to
critically evaluate
mental practice you also need to think about the negative aspects of this type of practice.......
Mental plus physical practice is much more effective than mental practice on its own.
Some personality types dislike mental rehearsal
Mental practice isn't always easy to use in competitive situations
Skills that involve a cognitive element e.g. a gymnastics routine gain more from metal rehearsal than simple skills that rely mainly on physical elements such as strength.
Continuous practice without breaks or rest intervals
Used for....
Simple skills
Discrete skills
When skill needs to be habitual
When skill needs to be overlearned/ grooved
Promoting fitness
Experts especially
Forming Motor Programmes
Critical evaluation.....
Can cause fatigue
A specific movement pattern is practiced repeatedly in the same environment.
Used for....
• Closed skills
• Simple Skills
• One repetitive task
• When skill need to be overlearned/ grooved
• When skill need to be habitual
• When consistency is required
Critical evaluation.......
• Can lead to boredom
• Can lead to fatigue
• Performer needs to be fit
• Best for autonomous performers
• Develops motor programmes
The role of mental rehearsal...
To create a mental picture
help the performer understands the task requirements
Helps to visualise fault correction
Activates nervous impulses
Maintains selective attention
Visual representation remembered
Effectively organise/store information
Improves confidence
Helps control arousal levels
The skill is practiced in many different environments
Used for....
• Open Skills
• Complex skills
• Constantly changing skills
• Involving decision making
• Involving perceptual skills
• Motivation
• Developing Schema's
Critical evaluation
• Time consuming
• Good for beginners
Practice sessions have rest intervals included
Used for...
• Continuous tasks
• Complex skills
• Beginners
• Motivation
• Providing feedback, mental rehearsal and coaching between performance
• Allows recovery time
Critical evaluation
• Reduces danger
• More effective than massed
Task: Pick one of the roles of mental rehearsal (knowledge point) and think of a suitable development point and e.g. that you could use in an exam answer if you were asked to explain the role/use/benefit of mental rehearsal.
Works best for autonomous learners but can also be effective for cognitive learners in practice.
Is physical practice enough on its own.....?
Mental preparation can help enhance a performers selective attention in a game or competition. This involves the performer focusing on the important environmental cues and ignoring irrelevant information, for example in competition a pole vaulter will need to ignore the crowd and instead focus on her run up and vault.
Mental preparation can help enhance a performers selective attention in a game or competition. This involves the performer focusing on the important environmental cues and ignoring irrelevant information, for example in competition a pole vaulter will need to ignore the crowd and instead focus on her run up and vault.
Methods of Guidance
(Early Stage of Learning)

(Later Stage of Learning)
Can be general or specific
Priming used to help decision making
Verbal Labeling to direct attention
Methods of Guidance
(Developing Kinaesthetic Awareness)

Used to restrict or support a performers movements.

Often used to develop confidence in the initial stages of alearning (e.g. Gymnastics coach supports a vault)

(Developing Kinaesthetic Awareness)

Different as it utilises a piece of equipment to restrict aor support (e.g. Swimming float)
Full transcript