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Ionian Revolt and Persia's invasion of Greece leading up to Marathon

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Harry Webb

on 2 April 2013

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Transcript of Ionian Revolt and Persia's invasion of Greece leading up to Marathon

The Persian Wars GREECE Persian Empire Origins The Persian Empire was absolutely massive, taking up almost 2/3 of the known world. And it was constantly growing in every direction. Darius I conquered much of the land east of Greece across the Aegean. This included Miletus, Thrace and Ionia. Ionia somewhere around here Persia's methods Persia was far too big to be ruled by one man. There was just too much land and too many people. - Appointed regional rulers to represent the King. Each territory was responsible for sending money (or gold) to the king as well as supplying troops when needed. - These regional rulers, usually tyrants, were called "Satraps." Darius I, the king after Cyrus the Great, wanted to expand westward. This will eventually cause the Persian Wars. Ionian Revolt - The Ionians were not too pleased about being conquered by the Persians. - They raised taxes and the Greeks resented the puppet tyrants. - One of the most ambitious of these regional rulers was the tyrant of Miletus - Aristagoras. Aristagoras of Miletus - Aristagoras wanted to make a name for himself. Originally, he had convinced the Persians to conquer Naxos in mainland Greece as a way of securing their position. - This... failed pretty badly. - Because he had failed, Aristagoras was worried
that he would lose his position as regional ruler. So... he changed sides. Diet Coke Version of What Happened Aristagoras "These Ionians are revolting! We, the Persians, need to secure our position and take Naxos!!!" "Sir! The mission was
a huge failure! This looks
bad on your part. You'll probably
lose your position as tyrant because of this!" ... Revolt against the Persians! - So... Aristogoras rallied around the discontented Ionians and staged a revolt against the Persians. - He tried to convince the Spartans to aid him. After all, the Spartans had a good army and they generally disliked foreigners. - Athens and Etrerius were eager to help, and sent ships to aid the revolt (15 from Athens and 5 from Etrerius). - But why did Athens help? Remember: Athens was a "democracy"! They wanted to continue to be seen as a leader of the free world. They wanted to rid Greeks from tyranny. Term "Free the Greeks", in this case, refers to freeing the Ionians. So with his army, Aristagoras attacked and burned Sardis in 498 BC. This had a number of consequences: Consequences for the burning of
Sardis and the rebellion 1. A lot of cities under Persian rule now considered rebelling as well.

2. Darius, king of Persia, was furious and wanted immediate revenge. And...he got it. Shortly after the capture of Sardis, Darius defeated the Greek forces. After this happened, the Ionians went on the defensive. Revolts began to spark up in different areas of Persia. Persia spent three years attempting to end these revolts. The Ionian Revolt was finally crushed in a major sea battle at Lade in 494 BC. Darius continued to ensure that there was peace in his kingdom. However, he was furious at the Greeks for having caused this revolt. Super Major Points to know so far: 1. Aristagoras of Miletus originally wanted to spread Persian power by taking Naxos. 2. This failed, so he rallied around the Ionians and staged a revolt. 3. Athens and Etrerius supported the Ionian Revolt by sending ships. 4. Together, they sacked and burned Sardis in 498 BC 5. Darius defeated the Greeks, and crushed the revolt in a major sea battle at Lade in 494 BC. 6. Darius was furious at Athens for helping the revolt. Part 2: Darius' Revenge In the spring of 492, Darius' son-in-law, Mardonius, assembled an expeditionary force. The fleet went up the Aegean coast, removed tyrants, and conquered Thassos. Thassos The army crossed the Hellespont to Thrace and Macedon, subjugating all the people on its path. Macedonia was reduced from an ally to a client state. The fleet, however, sailed into a storm off Mt. Athos, losing 300 ships and 20,000 men. Mardonius ordered the remnants of his army to return to Persia. In 490 BC, Darius attacked Greece again, this time he 'island hops' across the Aegean and landed just north of Athens. He conquered the Islands of the Aegean Naxos and Samos, and asked them for tokens of submission - earth and water.

Darius burnt everything on the Island of Naxos because of their involvement in the Ionian Revolt. MEDIZING (I would write this down): A term the Greeks used for those who submitted to the Persians. It was 'giving into the Medes'. To submit to the Persians you would have to make an offering of earth and water. Those who did not submit had their cities burned. But What About Athens? Remember, Athens had gotten rid of
Hippias, who had fled to the Persians. Hippias became a political pawn. After conquering Athens, Persia didn't care who they put in charge, as long as he was loyal to them. Hippias filled the role. Hippias was the one who suggested Marathon as a good place to land. Back to Persia... - Persia sent two envoys to Sparta
and Athens, asking them to surrender by making an offering of
earth and water. - Neither agreed to do it... Athens
was scared of what would happen if
they were ruled by a Persian tyrant and Sparta just flat out refused. (Slavery isn't an option.) Athenian Response: They threw the messengers into a ravine. Spartan Response: The Spartans threw them down a well.
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