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Socials 11 Project - French and English Canadian Relations from 1914 - 2000
Transcript of Socials 11 Project - French and English Canadian Relations from 1914 - 2000
1914-2000 1914 -1930 1940 - 1950 1960-1970 1980 - 2000 Feb. 18, 1980 Liberals Return The Liberals return to power
with Trudeau as the Prime Minister May 20, 1980 Quebec held its
on the issue of sovereignty
60% of the people were
the right to negotiate
sovereignty Oct. 6, 1980 Patriation The Federal government
announced its intention to
patriate the Canadian
after failure of first ministers
to reach an agreement 1981 Parti-Quebecois Parti-Quebecois
with Rene Levesque
as Premier Sept. 1, 1981 Sign Law In Quebec,
The signage is
now only in French Sept. 28, 1981 Ruling on Patriation Supreme Court of Canada
rules that proposal to
patriate Constitution unilaterally
was strictly legal, bu offended
constitutional convention requiring
provincial consent November 5, 1981 Patriation Trudeau and all Premiers
except Quebec reached
agreement on the patriation
of the Constitution April 17, 1982 Constitution Patriated Queen Elizabeth II
signs Proclamation of
Patriation of Constitution
at a ceremony in Ottawa June 9, 1983 Quebec's Language Law Quebec Court of Appeal
ruled that Bill 101, the Quebec
Language Law, violated the
Charter May 14, 1984 Jeanne Sauve Jeanne Sauve becomes
Canada's first female
Governor General Dec. 15, 1984 Bill 178 Supreme Court of Canada rules
compulsory use of French
language on commercial signs is
contrary to right to speech; Bourassa
government reacts by introducing
Bill 178 to reinstate the use of
French only signs Dec. 2, 1985 Quebec Liberals Liberal Party sweeps
to victory over Parti-Quebecois Apr. 30, 1987 Meech Lake Proposals to amend the
Constitution to include
Quebec were unanimously
accepted in principle by
First Ministers at Meech Lake June 22, 1990 Ratification Manitoba and Newfoundland
failed to ratify the Meech
Lake Accord, under the
influence of Clyde Wells (Nfld.) and Elijah Harper (Man.) June 23, 1990 Meech Lake Collapses Meech Lake Accord collapses
self-imposed deadline passes, due to failure to ratify in Newfoudland and Manitoba, the failure to include the Aborignal peoples and the rise of separtist movement in Quebec July 25, 1990 Bloc-Quebecois Bloc-Quebecois is formed
by group of dissident
Quebec MPs lead by
Lucien Bouchard Mar. 27, 1991 Belanger-Campeau Report Report recommends that a
referendum by held on
sovereignty in Quebec by Oct.
is the province does not
receive a suitable offer from
the rest of Canada June 20, 1991 Committee report on new
amending formula for the
Constitution June 20, 1991 Bill 150 Bourassa's government
passes Bill 150, also known
as the Act respecting the process
for determining the political and
constitutional future of Quebec June 27, 1991 Spicer Commission Commission's Report
other things, that Quebec
be recognized as a
unique province Aug. 22, 1992 Charlottetown Accord First Ministers emerge with
text of Charlottetown Accord
including recognition of Quebec
as distinct society
A referendum is held to decide
the issue Oct. 26, 1992 Rejection of Accord Six provinces and
Yukon region reject
in a national referendum Jan. 1, 1994 Quebec Civil Code The Civil Code of
Quebec, defining civil
laws in the province
comes into effect Sept. 12, 1994 Parti-Quebecois Parti-Quebecois wins
majority government in Quebec
with Jacques Parizeau as leader
Oct. 30, 1995 Second Referendum Quebec held second sovereignty
referendum, the "no" side with 50.6%
majority and 93.2% of population of
Quebec participating. Jacques Parizeau
resigns the next day and Lucien Bouchard
replaces him as Premier Sept. 14, 1997 Calgary Declaration 11 Premiers and Territorial Leaders
meet to discuss means of strengthening
Canada's federation and future Constitutional challenges. Quebec leader, Lucien Bouchard does not attend.
Aug. 20, 1998 Secession Supreme Court of Canada
rules that Quebec cannot separate unilaterally and must negotiate with federal government and other provinces June 1999 Clarity Act Canadian governemnt passes
the Clarity Act which states
that in any future referenda,
Quebec must ask a clear
question and win a clear
Joint Committee First Referendum National Resource Mobilization Act
June 19, 1940 The National Resource Mobilization Act was implemented, which required all men to help with the war effort, butnot overseas. After Prime Minsiter King won the election, he promised not to introduce conscription.
Conscription: cumpulsory military service
Prime Minister Borden introduced the Military Service Bill.
This bill made conscription cumpulsory for males between
the ages of 20 and 35. Only men vital in wartime production jobs,
those who were sick, or pacifists (those for whom fighting was
against religious beliefs)
The outcome of this was riots in Montreal and Quebec City against
This made English-Canadians feel that feel like the French-Canadians
were "slackers" or "shirkers."
The Conscription Crisis exacerbated an already tense situation between
the French and English Canadians. April 1942 Canadian Plesbcite A plesbcite is a vote on a single issue.
A plesbcite was held by Prime Minister King, asking Canadians to release him from his promise not to introduce conscription because of the shortages of troops.
The majority of Canadians supported, Majority of French Canadians did not. "Conscription if necessary,
but not necessarily conscription." - PM King, 1942 September 8, 1942 Bloc Populaire Canadiens A Quebec political movement in response to
the National Resource Mobilziation Act and the 1942 Plesbcite. Inspired by Henri Bourassa and led by Maxime Raymond , the Bloc included programs for Canadian independence and provicial autonomy. 1944 Conscription Crisis of 1944 Canada faced a lack of troops from the campaigns in Italy and Normandy Landing. Up to 12,820 men were sent to home defense stations at the Aleutian islands Campaign. Quiet Revolution, 1960 – 1966 the 1960s period of intense change in Quebec, Canada, characterized by the rapid and effective secularization of society, the creation of a welfare state and a re-alignment of politics into federalist and separatist factions. 1960 Canadian Bill of Rights Canadian Bill of Rights becomes law, and Universal suffrage, the right for any Canadian citizen to vote, is finally adopted the Progressive Conservative government. This act allows first nations people to vote for the first time. March 31, 1960 The "Act to Amend the Canada Elections Act," was made into law 1961 The New Democratic Party was formed to replace the CCF (Co-Operative Commonwealth Federation).
The federal government established the Royal Commission on Health Services and the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development Act.
PM John Diefenbaker fought for human rights outside of Canada by supporting non-white Commonwealth countries in gaining independence. His anti-apartheid speech was instrumental in causing South Africa's withdrawal from the Commonwealth. 1962 1963 The separatist Front de Libéation du Québec (FLQ) set off bombs in Montreal during April and May. (see also 1970) Conservatives were returned to power with minority status after the federal election on June 18.Socialized medicine was introduced in Saskatchewan on July 1, which would ultimately lead to a strike by doctors.The Trans-Canada Highway opened on September 3.Canada became the third country in space following the successful launch of the Alouette I satellite on September 29.The last execution in Canada took place in Toronto on December 11. 1965 The federal government established the Canada Pension Plan.
On February 15, 1965, the new maple leaf flag was adopted in Canada, after much acrimonious debate known as the Great Flag Debate. 1967 René Lévesque quits the Quebec Liberal Party and founded the Mouvement Souveraineté-Association.
French president Charles de Gaulle, on a visit to Canada, made a speech in Montreal and proclaimed "Vive le Québec libre" ('Long Live Free Quebec') on July 24. Expo 67 In 1967, the World's Fair came to Montreal, Quebec, coinciding with the Canadian Centennial that year. The fair opened April 28, 1967, with the theme "Man and his World" and became the best attended of all BIE-sanctioned world expositions until that time. Expo 67 raised the international profile of Montreal and Canada, and instilled a sense of hopefulness and national pride in many Canadian citizens. Canadian nationalists like Pierre Berton would later refer to 1967 as Canada's "Last Good Year" before the country became divided over economic problems and Quebec sovereignty. 1968 Pierre Elliot Trudeau succeeded Lester Pearson as Liberal Party Leader and won a majority government in the federal election on June 25. (read Trudeau's biography) The election itself had an atmosphere of a media circus and Trudeau's popularity was dubbed 'Trudeaumania'.
The federal government appointed a Royal Commission on the Status of Women. Meanwhile, Canadian divorce laws were completely reformed. The October Crisis The October Crisis was a series of events triggered by two kidnappings of government officials by members of the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) during October 1970 in the province of Quebec, mainly in the Montreal metropolitan area. 1969 Both English and French were recognized as official languages by the federal government on July 9 through the Official Languages Act, which guaranteed a bilingual civil service. 1970 The FLQ (Front de Libération de Québec, or the Quebec Liberation Front) kidnapped British trade commissioner James Cross on October 5, leading to the October Crisis. Québec's Minister of Labour and Immigration, Pierre Laporte was kidnapped on October 10. Québec Premier Robert Bourassa petitioned the federal government to invoke the War Measures Act, which PM Pierre Trudeau did on October 16. The FLQ was banned and almost 500 terrorists were arrested. James Cross was rescued, but Pierre Laporte was found murdered in the trunk of a car under what is now named the Pierre Laporte Bridge. 1972 Former prime minister Lester B. Pearson died on December 27 in Ottawa, Ontario.
Murial Fergusson was appointed as the first female Speaker of the Senate. 1973 The separatist Parti Québecois became the official opposition in a Québec provincial election 1974 The Liberals under Pierre Trudeau won another majority government on July 8. Aug 8, 1944 – Sept 7, 1959 Maurice Duplessis , 16th Premier of Quebec in Office 1975 The Foreign Investment Review Agency was created on July 18 to screen foreign investment in Canada. PM Pierre Trudeau initiated wage and price controls on October 14 in order to fight inflation. 1976 Maurice Duplessis became premier for the second time since 1939. Duplessis, a Liberal and also a strong Quebec nationalist, became an ally with the Roman Catholic Church to protect French culture, Duplessis was well known to be the founder and leader of the Union Nationale party. November 15. Election of the Parti Quebecois. In 1976, the Parti Québécois was elected for the first time to form the government of Québec. The party's leader, René Lévesque, became the Premier of Quebec. This provided cause for celebration among many French-speaking Quebecers, while it resulted in an acceleration of the migration of the province's Anglophone population and related economic activity toward Toronto. 1977 Québec passed Bill 101 on August 26, restricting English schooling to children of parents who had been taught in English schools. 1979 Progressive Conservative Joseph 'Joe' Clark, won a minority government in the federal election on May 22 and became Canada's youngest Prime Minister.
PM Joe Clark drafted Canada's Freedom of Information Act but didn't have time to introduce it into the House of Commons. The Act was later adopted by the next Liberal government. Unione Nationale 1944-1960 The Union Nationale was a political party in
Quebec who identified themselves with conservative Quebecois whom believed in autonomy and nationalism.First founded in 1935, The Union Nationale Party held power
during Maurice Duplessis' Premiership in Quebec. The political party no longer exist, and dissolution occured because the party was hyper conservative. November 15 1948 – June 21 1957 Mackenzie King resigns, St. Louis Laurent is Prime Minister of Canada January 15, 1948 Quebec's official flag was born Under the supervision of Maurice Duplessis,
the Quebec's official flag was presented in 1948
and permanently changed from the previous flag ensigns. It was documented that the Union Jack that flew over the Parliament Building. This was the first signs that showed French Canadien's desire to be a separatist from Canada. To replace Mackenzie King, St. Louis Laurent
was chosen by King to become the Prime Minister
of Canada. He is the 2nd French-Canadien Prime Minister since Sir Wilfrid Laurier, and during his leadership he was often compared to him. Described to be a kind, gentle man, he brought Canada's name as middle power to the world through prosperty and unity. Under Laurent's government, Canada's industry boomed - oil, mining, and transantlantic transportation. This is a video describing the effects of Bill 101 Overview: After this presentation you will understand:
Some tensions between French and English Canada
Be able to identify the hopes and aspirations of both sides
Understand the motivations of both sides also
Identify key dates and occurences that made Canada what it is today The Words and Terms that You Will Recognize: Meech Lake Accord
"No" vs "Yes"
Conclusion/Summary: French and Englsih Candian relations have not always been sympatico with each other, yet, that is what makes Canada so great. In a country like ours we can hold different opinions and have different viewpoints on the same subject. Many things that the French and English Canadians disagree on are based on conflicts (be they wars or "in country crises".) In saying this, there have been relatively few schirmishes between the two "sects" of Canadians. Many younger countries than ourselves have found themselves fighting constantly. The main difference between the two is that one culture stems from French ancestry and the other comes from British ties. Each is very interested in maintaining their ties to their "mother country." The first long-distance call in Canada was
placed from Montréal to Vancouver, from the Ritz Carlton
Hotel in Montreal to the Globe Theatre in Vancouver. Jan 14, 1914 WWI began when Britain declared war on Germany and Austria-Hungary. August 4, 1914 August 19, 1914 Canada declares war on Germany and Austria- Hungary The first Canadian armed forces saild from Québec for England, a total of 31 000 men. Oct 3, 1914 January 10, 1920 The Conscription Crisis 1917 Canada joins the League of Nations Feb 6, 1926 The Indian Act now allows all Canadian aboriginals the right to vote 1930 The British Commonwealth games are held in Canada - the French Canadians protest Feb 15, 1930 Cairine Wilson becomes the first female senator June 29, 1930 Jean de Brebeuf is canonized, making him the first Canadian saint Dec 11, 1931 The Statute of Westminster passes August 17, 1936 The Union Nationale, led by Maurice Duplessis, won the Québec election. August 15, 1937 Mackenzie King appointed the Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations to examine the amendment of the BNA Act, and the relationship of the federal and provincial governments in Confederation. March 1, 1939 Canada has the fisrt transcontinental mail service