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Sea Anemone

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by

Jess Abendroth

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of Sea Anemone

Sea Anemones Actiniaria Sea anemones nervous system have no centralization, also known as a primitive nervous system. It coordinates the processes involved in maintaining homeostasis, as well as any biochemical and physical responses. There are no specialized sense organs. Their muscles and nerves are much simpler than most other animals. The cells found in the epidermis (outer layer) and the gastrodermis (inner) have microfilaments that will group into contractile fibers. These contractile fibers are not true muscles because they aren't freely suspended in the body cavity unlike in other animals. Longitudinal fibers are found in the tentacles and the oral disc. Circular fibers are found in the body wall, and in some species, around the oral disc, which would then allow the animal to retract its tentacles into a sphincter. Sea anemones don't have true respiration systems. They use each cell to intake oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide through simple diffusion. Skeletal System Sea anemones lack bone structure. Most are supported by water swelling in their digestive cavity or water filled cells. This is known as hydrostatic skeleton. Reproduction Nervous System Respiration System Muscular System Sea anemones reproduce both sexually and asexually.
Like humans, sea anemones can reproduce sexually with egg and sperm. In
sexual reproduction, the sea anemone
releases eggs and sperm into the
water. Upon their merging, larvae
develop. The larvae then settle
onto the sea floor to become
sea anemones.
In asexual reproduction, the sea
anemone splits parts of itself off. Those pieces then become baby sea anemones. If a sea anemone is torn apart by rocks, each piece becomes a baby sea anemone. Did you know? Sea anemones ride on the backs of hermit crabs as a safe guard for the crab from predators. Sea anemones are closely related to jelly fish and coral. Sea anemones don't have brains. Sea anemones can reach 60-80 years of age and more. They don't age, so they have the potential of living indefinitely. Sea anemones are carnivorous. The smaller species prey on plankton, while the larger species can catch fish. Sea anemones are found worldwide, but are usually found in tropical waters fixed to the side of reefs in shallow coastal waters. Sea anemones can range from 10 to 100 tentacles. Mesoglea is a gelatinous noncellular layer that seperates the ectoderm (external) and endoderm (internal) cellular layers of the body. The mesoglea consists of muscle bundles and nerve fibers. In sea anemones it may be tough, fibrous, and contain prolongations of cells of the body layers. Circulatory System Sea anemones don't have a true circulatory system either. Their stomachs serve as their circulatory system because it's a gastrovascular system. Nervous System Since sea anemones lack a skeletal system, the contractile cells pull against the gastrovascular cavity, which acts as a hydrostatic skeleton. Sea anemones are generally stationary. Sea anemones are capable of swimming just by contracting their contractile cells. Another way they move is through their pedal disc, which is the foot or base of the anemone. Digestive System There is a gastrovascular cavity, which would be the stomach, with a single opening to the outside which functions as both a mouth and an anus. Waste and undigested matter is excreted through the mouth/anus. The mouth is typically slit-like in shape. Most sea anemones are predacious, immobilizing their prey with the aid of their stinging tentacles. The mouth opens into a flattened pharynx. The pharynx usually runs for about two-thirds the length of the body before opening into the gastrovascular cavity. Within the cavity, there is mucus present to help break down food brought in by the tentacles. Like, humans, they get ride of waste and take in food since they can't make their own. It looks like a plant, but it's an animal.
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