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Organization of the human body

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keith peterson

on 27 August 2013

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Transcript of Organization of the human body

Organization of the human body Ch.1
One of the major topics of anatomy and physiology is the new language, and terms that are involved.
Body Systems,
all body systems have general functions
Pg 4-5
Metabolism and regulation
Metabolism is divided into two types of reactions/ activities.
The steady state within an organism, or internal balance. This is what every organism is constantly working to accomplish.
Body Directions
pg 7-9
Anatomical Position: standing upright, feet parallel, facing front, arms at the sides with palms facing forward.
Planes of Division
Pg 8-9
study of body structure.

study of how the body functions.

Remember structure dictates function.


this is our theme (balance).
Anything that upsets this balance and the workings of the body is known as


is the study of disease.

is the study of the underlying physiological aspects of disease.
(Pg.4 12 edition)

Levels of organization
all living things are organized from very small levels to more complex. All living things are derived from

chemicals or molecules.

These molecules then form
The basic units of life. Cells then form tissues,

then form organs,

work independently as well in a group known as an

organ system.

These systems when grouped together make up the whole body. These systems working together to bring about

Protection, support, and movement.
1) integumentary system
2) skeletal system
3) muscular system

Coordination and control
1) nervous system
2) endocrine system
Circulatory and Immunity
1) cardiovascular system
2) lymphatic system.
Energy supply and Fluid balance
1) respiratory system
2) digestive system
3) urinary system

Production of offspring
1) reproductive system

We will cover the urogenital system in this class, which is a combination of urinary and reproductive systems.

all life-sustaining reactions that occur within the body systems together make up

1) Catabolism: breakdown of something into a smaller substance.
2) Anabolism: simple compounds are used to produce larger materials needed for
growth, function, and tissue repair.
Anabolism is a building/synthesis
adenosine triphosphate (ATP): is the cells energy currency, it is produced by the breakdown of nutrients.



temperature, body fluids, heart rate,
respiration rate, blood pressure.
Negative Feedback: is the main method for maintaining homeostasis. In the negative feedback loop this control system is based on information returning to a source. Remember that the negative feed back doesn't always mean less, but means an opposite response to a stimulus. Pg 6-7

Positive Feedback loop: is our other feedback mechanism. For the positive feedback loop the response is the same as the stimulus. 1%
Age and it's changes on homeostasis, in some cases it alters our homeostasis.
wrinkles, gray hair, decreased kidney function, loss of bone mass, deposits within blood vessels.
When our ability to maintain homeostasis occurs we are more susceptible to injury and disease.
All reference points, terms, and directions are taken from this position.
The following are the main directional terms of the body.
1) superior: means above, or higher position.
2) inferior: means below, or lower.
The nose is superior to the mouth.
3) anterior/ventral: means front of body.
4) posterior/dorsal: means back of body.
5) medial means towards/ nearer to an imaginary plane that passes through the body, dividing it into left and right halves called the midline.
6) lateral: means further from the midline, or towards the side.
The nose is medial to the ears.
7) proximal: means nearest the point of origin of a structure.
8) distal: means away from the point of origin.
The shoulder is proximal to the elbow.

frontal plane:
a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior sections. This plane is also referred to as the coronal plane as well.
sagittal plane:
a vertical plane that divides the body into left and right sections. The
midsagittal plane
is a cut exactly down the midline of the body, dividing equal left and right sections. The midsagittal plane was referred to when defining the term lateral.
transverse plane:
this is a horizontal plane, dividing the body into superior and inferior sections.
We also see these planes when looking at MRI's and CT scans.
pg 8-9, Fig. 1-7
In anatomy we use planes that run in different directions,
dividing the body into sections for study and

We have two main cavities.

Dorsal Cavity:
has two subdivisions

1)cranial cavity: containing
the brain.
2) spinal cavity(canal): containing
the spinal cord.
Together these two areas form one
continuous space.

Ventral Cavity:
it is much larger and has two
subdivisions separated by the diaphragm.
1) thoracic cavity: is superior to the diaphragm. It contains the heart, lungs, trachea, esophagus, and the large blood vessels that join the heart.
The heart is located in the
pericardial space
, surrounded by a protective tissue known as the
pericardial sac
The lungs are in the
pleural cavity
, formed by the pleura.
is a membrane that surrounds the lungs.
is the space between the lungs for the heart and it's vessel's

2) abdominopelvic cavity: is inferior to the diaphragm. This cavity is also further seperated into the abdominal cavity, & pelvic cavity.
The abdominal cavity contains the stomach, most of the intestines, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, kidney's, and spleen.

The pelvic cavity contains the urinary bladder, rectum, internal reproductive organs, part of the intestines.

Body Cavities
internally our bodies divided into a few large spaces/ cavities, which contain our organs. pg 10-12, Fig. 1-11&1-12
There are two main categories of body cavities.
dorsal cavity
ventral cavity
Dorsal cavity:
has two subdivisions.
1) cranial cavity: contains the brain.
2) spinal cavity(canal): contains the spinal cord.
these two form one continuous space. pg 11, Fig 1-10
Ventral cavity:
is much larger, and it has two main subdivisions that are separated by the diaphragm.
1) thoracic cavity:

is superior to the diaphragm. It contains the heart, lungs, esophagus, trachea, and the vessel's connected to the heart.

The heart is contained in the

pericardial space
by supportive tissue known as the

pericardial sac

The lungs are in the

pleural space
, that is formed by the pleurae.
is the membrane enclosing the lungs.

is the space between the lungs for the heart and it's connecting vessels.

2) abdominopelvic cavity:
is inferior to the diaphragm, and can be further subdivided into the
abdominal cavity

pelvic cavity.

Abdominal cavity:

contains the stomach, most of the intestines, spleen, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, and 2 kidney's.
There is an imaginary line that runs across the top of the iliac crests(hip bones) that serves as the dividing line between the abdominal and pelvic cavities. No true divider.

Pelvic cavity:
contains the urinary bladder, rectum, intestines, appendix, cecum, and internal reproductive organs.

pg.620-623, Fig.A5-5,A5-7,A5-8,A5-9,A5-10.

Divisions of the abdomen:
is divided into nine regions, that is referenced during examination.

right left
midclavicular line midclavicular line
epigastric region
umbilical region
left lumbar
left hypochondriac region
right lumbar
hypochondriac region
left iliac (inguinal)
right iliac (inguinal)
a simpler yet less precise division is the
Quadrant system. This allows for quick reference when dealing with emergency situations.
left upper
quadrant (LUQ)
left lower
quadrant (LLQ)
right upper
quadrant (RUQ)
right lower
quadrant (RLQ)
To accompany Memmler's the human body in health and disease.
Medical Terminology:
A special language based on word parts that have consistent meanings, we combine to form different words. Each chapter we will be going through the sections at the end of the chapter "word anatomy." You will find definitions of word parts commonly used in medical terms and examples of their usage. The main part of a word is the




is a short part that starts a word and modifies the root a little. A
follows the root and also modifies it a little.

prefix- root(a) -suffix
pg.13, Fig. 1-14, 1-15
provides our terminology
for chapter 1. Please know the
terms listed for the body regions
both anterior and posterior views.
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