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Chapter 28 - The Reproductive System

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Edward Catherina

on 11 May 2017

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Transcript of Chapter 28 - The Reproductive System

Human Reproduction
Introduction To
The Reproductive System

The reproductive system is the only system that is not essential to the life of the individual.
Instead, this system insures the continued existence of the human species
Sexual Reproduction
is the process by which organisms produce offspring by making germ cells (gametes).
Gonads
:
Reproductive organs that produce gametes and hormones
Ducts
: that receive and transport gametes
Accessory glands
: and organs that secrete fluids into the ducts of the reproductive system or into other excretory ducts
Perineal structures
: that are collectively known as the external genitalia
Male:
Seminal vesicles
Prostate
Bulbourethral glands
Female:
Paraurethral glands (Skene's)
Greater vestibular glands (Bartholin's)
Female:
Mons pubis
Labia majora
Labia minora
Clitoris
Male:
The penis
The male urethra
The scrotum
The Reproductive System of the Male
Male reproductive structures:
Testes
Seminiferous tubule
Rete testis
Epididimis
Ductus epididimis
Duct System
Ductus deferens (vas Deferens)
Ejaculatory ducts
Urethra
Accessory sex glands
Seminal vesicles
Prostate gland
Bulbourethral glands

The Testes:

Two ovoid (gonads) in the shape of a flattened egg.

During development of the fetus, the testes form inside the body cavity adjacent to the kidneys


From two through four months, the gubernaculum, which is attached to the testes and the wall of the perineal wall, does not elongate with the rapid growth of the fetus. This pulls the testes down from the abdominal cavity.


During the seventh developmental month, fetal growth continues at a rapid rate, and circulating hormones stimulate the contraction of the gubernaculum. This draws the testis through the inguinal canal and into a small pocket of the peritoneal cavity, the scrotum.
The external structures include: The scrotum, a fleshy pouch which encloses the testes, and the penis, an erectile organ through which the uretra passes.
The principal structures of the male reproductive system are as follows:

Two male gonads (testes, testis; singular)
produce
Sperm, reproductive cells (spermatozoa)
Which leave each testis via the
Male reproductive tract:
Epididymis
Ductus deferens
Ejaculatory duct
Urethra
Accessory organs include:
Seminal vesicles
Prostate gland
Bulbourethral glands
Male Reproductive System
The primary sex organs of the male system are the testes. The testes hang within the scrotum, a fleshy pouch suspended from the perineum, just posterior to the base of the penis

The scrotum is subdivided into two chambers, or scrotal cavities, each containing a testis.

The scrotum consists of a thin layer of smooth muscle, the dartos m. which when contracted causes the characteristic wrinkled appearance. Beneath the dartos m. is a layer of skeletal muscle called the creamaster m. which can contract to pull the testes closer to the body
The Testes
Each testis is subdivided into roughly 250 lobules, each containing about 800 slender tubules. The seminiferous tubule is the site of sperm production.
In length, the average testis contains about half a mile of seminiferous tubule.
Seminiferous Tubules
The spaces between each tubule are filled with loose connective tissue, which holds many tiny blood vessels and specialized cells called interstitial cells of Leydig.
The connective tissue of the seminiferous tubule itself contains Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids, and finally the matured spermatozoa.
Hormonal Control
In reaction to the release of gonadotrophic releasing hormone from the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary gland secretes FSH and LH, which travel in the bloodstream to the testes.
First FSH stimulates the Leydig cells to produce and secrete testosterone, which diffuses to the tissue of the tubule, LH stimulates the Sertoli cells in the tubules and causes them to produce ABP (androgen binding protein), which stimulates the maturation of the primary spermatogonia by attracting more testosterone.
Hormonal Control of Spermatogenesis
Spermatogenesis involves three processes:

Mitosis: Mitotic division of the spermatogonia. This process happens throughout the adult males life. This cell will differentiate into a spermatocyte.

Meiosis: This is a special form of cell division that produces gametes. Sex cells with half the chromosomes of the parent. These cells are called spermatids.

Spermiogenesis: In this process the small immature spermatid differentiates into the mature spermatozoa
Spermatogenesis
A sperm cell has three (3) distinct regions:

The Head: contains a nucleus filled with densely packed chromosomes.
At the tip of the head is a region acrosomal cap, filled with enzymes that is important in the process of fertilization.

The Neck and Middle : a short piece which attaches to the middle piece that is dominated with mitochondria that power the production of ATP which is used to generate oscillation of the tail.

The Tail: this is the only example of a flagellum in the human body. It allows for movement, swimming, of the sperm.
Anatomy of a Spermatozoon
Capacitation: (kah-pas’-i-ta’shun)
Sperm cells detach from the sustentacular cells and enter the lumen of the seminiferous tubules. Cilia-driven fluid carry them to the epididymis.
Epididymis acts as a holding area, allowing for the maturation of the sperm, recycling of the damaged cells, and adjusting the contents of the fluid. The sperm spends approximately two weeks here undergoing maturation while moving towards the ductus deferens.

Capacitation: complete maturation of the sperm which occurs after it 1. mixes with secretions of the seminal vesicles and 2. is exposed to conditions inside the female reproductive tract. The epididymis secretes a substance that prevents premature capacitation.
The Male Reproductive Tract
The Journey of the Sperm Cell
Ductus Deferens: (aka vas deferens) It ascends into the abdominal cavity within the spermatic cord. Once inside the body each ductus deferens passes lateral to the urinary bladder, past the ureters, and into the prostate gland where they join to form the ejaculatory duct.
Ejaculatory duct: This short passageway empties into the first part of the urethra, within the prostate gland.
The Urethra: In males the urethra extends from the urinary bladder to the tip of the penis. Usually 7 – 8 inches. The male urethra is the passageway that functions in both the reproductive and urinary systems.
The Journey of the Sperm Cell
Contribute about 60% of the volume of semen.
Secretions contain
Fructose which is easily metabolized by spermatozoa.
Prostaglandins, which can stimulate smooth muscle contractions along the reproductive tracts.
Fibrinogen, which after ejaculation forms a temporary clot within the vagina

The alkalinity of the secretion helps neutralize acids within the vagina. The secretion also activates the flagella to aid in motility of the spermatozoa
The Seminal Vesicles
The Journey of the Sperm Cell
Surrounds the urethra as it leaves the urinary bladder.

Prostatic fluid is slightly acidic.

Contributes 20 – 30 percent of the volume of semen.

The fluid, seminalplasmin, an antibiotic that may help prevent urinary tract infections in males.
The Prostate Gland
The Journey of the Sperm Cell
These glands secrete a thick, sticky, alkaline mucus that helps neutralize urinary acids in the urethra and has lubricating properties.
The Bulbourethral Glands
The Journey of the Sperm Cell
The penis is a tubular organ that both introduces semen into the female’s vagina during sexual intercourse and conducts urine to the exterior.

The Root is the fixed portion that attaches the penis to the body wall.
The Body (shaft), the tubular portion that contains masses of erectile tissue.
The Glands, the expanded distal portion surrounding the external urethral opening
Structure of the Penis
This causes testicular temperature to drop. When external temperature is cold, the opposite occurs.
When body temperature (or external temp.) is high the scrotal muscles relax, allowing the testes to hang lower.
Ductus deferens
Epididymis
Rete testis
Seminiferous tubules
Contraction of the scrotal muscles allows for higher testicular temperatures as the scrotum gets closer to the body.
Page 277
Penis (corpora cavernosa / corpus spongiosum)
Penis
Prostate gland
Ductus deferens
Urethra
Glands penis
Prepuce
Penis
Testes
Ductus deferens
Urethra
A – G – H – K
Scrotum
Epididymis
Prepuce
Prostate gland
Seminal vesicles
Bulbourethral glands
Spermatic cord
Page 280
Rete testis
Seminiferous tubules
Septum
Tunica albuginea
Lobule
Epididymis
Page 279
Page 278
Spermatogonium
Primary Spermatocyte
Secondary Spermatocyte
Spermatids
Sperm
Interstitial cells of Ledig (produce testosterone)
Page 281
Mitochondria –
metabolically active organelles
Page 282
tail
midpiece
Nucleus – DNA containing area
head
Acrosome –
enzyme containing sac
Page 281
Spermatogonium
Spermatid
Sperm
Secondary spermatocyte
Primary spermatocyte
Spermatid
Sperm
FSH
Testosterone
Page 282 - 283
Mitosis
Meiosis
BOTH
Meiosis
Meiosis
BOTH
Meiosis
Mitosis
Mitosis
Meiosis
Mitosis
Do you know the connection between blue balls and sex? Have you ever heard someone ask you, "What are blue balls?" "Blue balls" is a slang term referring to testicular aching that may occur when the blood that fills the vessels in a male's genital area during sexual arousal is not dissipated by orgasm.
When a man becomes sexually excited, the arteries carrying blood to the genital area enlarge, while the veins carrying blood from the genital area are more constricted than in the non-aroused state.
This uneven blood flow causes an increase in volume of blood trapped in the genitals and contributes to the penis becoming erect and the testicles becoming engorged with blood. During this process of vasocongestion the testicles increase in size 25-50 percent.
If the male reaches orgasm and ejaculates, the arteries and veins return to their normal size, the volume of blood in the genitals is reduced and the penis and testicles return to their usual size rather quickly.
If ejaculation does not occur there may be a lingering sensation of heaviness, aching, or discomfort in the testicles due to the continued vasocongestion. This unpleasant feeling has popularly been called blue balls, perhaps because of the bluish tint that appears when blood engorges the vessels in the testicles
9. Name four of the male secondary sex characteristics. Insert your answers on the lines provided.

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________
1. Development and maturation of viable sperm
2. Increase of facial, axillary, and pubic hair
3. Growth, development, strength, and endurance of skeletal muscle
4. Promotes the deepening of the voice
Anatomy and Physiology
Coloring
Workbook Packet
Male Reproductive System
Epididymis
Scrotum
Testis
Bulbourethral gland
Ejaculatory duct
Seminal vesicle
Testes secrete sex hormones called androgens,
Testosterone and Androgen Binding Protein (ABP).
They also contain the sex cell,
Sperm.
Overies secrete the sex hormones,
Estrogen hormones
Progesterone
The epididymis is the start of the reproductive tract and has three basic functions:
Monitor and adjust the composition of the fluid produced by the seminiferous tubules.
Acts as a recycling center for damaged spermatozoa.
Stores, protects, and facilitates the maturation of sperm.
The Reproductive System
of the Female

Objectives:
To identify the components of the female reproductive system.
Outline the process of meiosis and oogenesis in the ovaries.
Identify the phases and events of the ovarian and uterine cycles, and hormonal control.
Describe the structure, histology, and functions of the vagina.

The female reproductive system functions to accomplish the following:
produce sex hormones and functional gametes
protect and support a developing embryo
nourish the newborn infant
Pg. 283
uterus
vagina
uterine tube
clitoris
uterine tube
hymen
ovary
fimbriae
Fimbriae
ovary
endometrium
Cervix of the uterus
uterine tube
Round ligament
myometrium
clitoris
vagina
labia magnus
Pg. 284
B. Primary oocyte
C. Secondary oocyte
C. Secondary oocyte
D. Ovum
Pg. 285
Pg. 286
Corpus luteum
Secondary oocyte
Ruptured (ovulated) follicle
Antrum
Vesicular follicles
11. Fimbriae
12. Cervix
13. Rectum
15. Anus
2. Ovary
1. Uterine tube
3. Uterus
14. Vagina
4. Urinary bladder
5. Pubic symphysis
6. Urethra
7. Clitoris
8. Labium minus
9. Labium majus
10. External urethral orifice
8. Round ligament
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=TExPlAh1tCA
Because of this structural condition, many eggs (oocytes) are lost in the peritoneal cavity upon ovulation, therefore becoming unavailable for fertilization
Pg. 287
FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone)
LH (luteinizing hormone)
Estrogen and Progesterone
Estrogen
LH (luteinizing hormone)
LH (luteinizing hormone)
Pg. 287
Pg. 287
Appearance of axillary / pubic hair
Widening of the pelvis
Development of breasts
Onset of menses
Estrogens /Progesterone
Progesterone
Estrogens
Progesterone
Estrogens
Estrogens
Pg. 288
Pg. 289
Menses
Proliferative stage
Secretory stage
Primary follicle
Growing follicle
Vesicular follicle
Ovulating follicle
Corpus luteum
LH
FSH
Progesterone
Estrogen
Pg. 290
Lactiferous
ducts
Nipple
Areola
Alveolar glands
Pg. 290
Just its head (nucleus)
Digests away the cement holding the follicle cells together; allows sperm to reach the oocyte
The polar body has virtually no cytoplasm. Without nutrients it dies.
Implantation
Blastocyst
Cleavage
Fertilized egg (zygote)
Fertilization (sperm penetration)
Anatomy and Physiology
Coloring
Workbook Packet
Female Reproductive System
Primary follicles
Granulosa cells
This discontinuity also provides infectious microorganisms with access to the peritoneal cavity, possibly leading to PID (pelvic inflammatory diseases)
Sex reassignment surgery (female-to-male)
Sex reassignment surgery from female to male includes a variety of surgical procedures for transsexual men that alter female anatomical traits to provide physical traits more appropriate to the trans man's male identity and functioning.

Many trans men considering the option do not opt for genital reassignment surgery; more frequent surgical options include bilateral mastectomy (removal of the breasts) and chest contouring (providing a more typically male chest shape), and hysterectomy (the removal of internal sex organs).

Sex reassignment surgery is usually preceded by beginning hormone treatment with testosterone.
Mastectomy
Hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy
Genital reassignment
Genital reconstructive procedures (GRT) use either the clitoris, which is enlarged by androgenic hormones (Metoidioplasty), or rely on free tissue grafts from the arm, the thigh or belly and an erectile prosthetic (Phalloplasty). In either case, the urethra can be rerouted through the phallus to allow urination through the reconstructed penis. The labia majora (see vulva) are united to form a scrotum, where prosthetic testicles can be inserted.
In an event called
fertilization
, the male sperm unites with the female secondary oocyte. The resulting cell contains one set of chromosomes from each parent.
Males and females have
anatomically distinct reproductive organs
that are adapted for producing gametes, facilitating fertilization, and, in females, sustaining the growth of the embryo and fetus.
The male and female reproductive organs can be
grouped by function
:
Gonads
: testes in males - ovaries in women produce gametes and secrete sex hormones (androgens)
Accessory sex glands
: produce substances that protect the gametes and facilitate their movement
Supporting structures
: the penis and uterus, assist the delivery and joining of gametes; in females, the growth of the embryo and developing fetus during pregnancy
Sexual Reproduction
The reproductive system includes these components:
1. Internal oblique m.
2. Aponeurosis
3. Fundiform ligament of penis
4. Suspensory ligament of penis
5. Corpora cavernosa penis
6. Spongy penile urethra
7. Corpus spongiosum penis
8. Scrotal septum
9. Cremaster m.
10. External spermatic fascia
11. Dartos m.
12. Skin of scrotum
13. Spermatic cord
14. Superficial inguinal ring
15. Cremaster m.
16. Inguinal canal
17. Ductas (vas) deferens
18. Autonomic nerves
19. Testicular artery
20. Lymphatic vessel
21. Pampiniform plexus of testicular veins
22. Epididymis
23. Tunica albuginea of testis
24. Tunica vaginalis (peritoneum)
25. Internal spermatic fascia
26. Raphe
ovulation
Full transcript