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American Wars & Influence

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Robert Rhodes

on 6 February 2015

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Transcript of American Wars & Influence

US War with Mexico: a Matter of Destiny
Cuba Libre! Spanish-American War
Two Great Wars
War does not determine who is right - only who is left. -- Bertrand Russell
America Moves West
The War to End All Wars!
Not in Our Back Yard!
World War I
World War II
America always sought to expand the size of the nation, and throughout the 19th Century, they extended control to the Pacific Ocean

With the fulfillment of Manifest Destiny, Americans wanted to expand even further to promote industrialization.

$1.25
Monday, April 8, 2014
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Why the US decides to Fight
American Foreign Policy
Korean and Vietnam Conflicts
The
Cold
War was Actually Quite
Hot

American Wars & Influence
Why does the US get involved around the world?
We need to understand the US foreign policy GOALS which helps develop our Foreign Policy.
Foreign Policy
Goals
Goals: establish
what
we want to accomplish
Foreign Policy
Policy: establish
how
we will accomplish the goals
A country’s strategy for dealing with other countries is called its foreign policy
.
A policy is a plan that includes an overall goal and the
kinds of actions that are okay to take in order to achieve the goal
.
A policy is like a guideline.
It determines what kinds of decisions will be made and what actions will be taken.
1)
National Security

Protection of of a nation's borders and territories against invasion or control by foreign powers. Also helps determine how the US deals with other nations.


2)
Free and Open Trade
Maintaining trade with other nations and preserving access to necessary natural resources have been basic goals of US foreign policy. This is an absolute necessity for the US.


3)
World Peace
American leaders work for world peace because they believe it helps the nation avoid outside conflicts and aids national security. The US tries to help other nations settle disputes and has also supplied economic aid to at-risk countries, in part to prevent uprising and revolutions.


4)
Democratic Governments

The US aids democratic nations and helps others create democratic political systems. With US help, many formerly Communist nations in Europe began to form democratic political systems in the 1990's.


5)
Concern for Humanity

Victims of natural disasters or starvation have looked to the US for help. In such times of crisis, the US has responded by providing food, medial supplies, and technology assistance for humanitarian reasons. At the same time, this aid serves the strategic interests of the US by maintaining political stability in the world.

Goals Explained
1. National Security
2. Free and Open Trade
3. World Peace
4. Democratic Governments
5. Concern for Humanity
A country is always trying to act in its own best interest by trying to get other countries to act in ways that are beneficial and not harmful.
A country’s
national interest
is all the things a country believes would be for its benefit
. National interest ties directly to a country’s foreign policy.
National Security
Free & Open Trade
World Peace
Democratic
Governments
Concern for Humanity
So how do each of the goals benefit the US [national interest]?

Essential Questions
Why does the United States get involved with countries throughout the world?

How do American foreign policy goals encourage our global interventionism?

Why does the US provide military and non-military aid to countries throughout the world?

Why might a "preemptive strategy" be more beneficial to our national interest compared to a reactionary policy?
Guiding Questions
1. What are the foreign policy goals of the United States?
2. What is a foreign policy?
3. How do foreign policies and goals influence US decisions abroad?
4. How has American foreign policy changed through the years?
5. How has that change in policy influenced our reactions to global problems?
6. What is isolationism?
7. What is the Monroe Doctine?
8. What role did the Roosevelt Corollary in US policy change?
9. What is interventionism?
10. How did the US & Soviet Union influence the world during the Cold War?
11. How did 9/11 emphasize a shift from interventionism to preemption?
What Actions are Necessary to Achieve a Goal?
Negotiation
Talk it over with the person and try to compromise
Mediation
Find someone who can help the two of you solve the problem
Used when two countries can't find a reasonable solution among themselves
Often used during the Negotiation process
Treaty
Make a deal or agreement with the person
Often used when ending violence or war
Sometimes the loser gives something up (land or money)
Military Force
Use overwhelming force to influence a country's behavior
Have a fight with the person or country
Sanctions

Punishments meant to persuade a country
Stop talking to the person or cut off trade
Usually hurts another country's economy
How does that influence their behavior?
Foreign Policy Goal
Something in our nation's best interest
Expansion westward seemed perfectly natural to many Americans in the mid-nineteenth century. Like the Massachusetts Puritans who hoped to build a "city upon a hill, "courageous pioneers believed that America had a divine obligation to stretch the boundaries of their noble republic to the Pacific Ocean. Independence had been won in the Revolution and reaffirmed in the War of 1812. The spirit of nationalism that swept the nation in the next two decades demanded more territory. The "every man is equal" mentality of the Jacksonian Era fueled this optimism. Now, with territory up to the Mississippi River claimed and settled and the Louisiana Purchase explored, Americans headed west in droves.
Heading West
The religious fervor spawned by the Second Great Awakening created another incentive for the drive west. Indeed, many settlers believed that God himself blessed the growth of the American nation. The Native Americans were considered heathens. By Christianizing the tribes, American missionaries believed they could save souls and they became among the first to cross the Mississippi River.
Spreading Christianity
Why is moving west in our National Interest?
Economic Reasons
The fur trade had been dominated by European trading companies since colonial times. The desire for more land brought aspiring homesteaders to the frontier. When gold was discovered in California in 1848, the number of migrants increased even more.
At the heart of manifest destiny was the pervasive belief in American cultural and racial superiority. Native Americans had long been perceived as inferior, and efforts to "civilize" them had been widespread since the days of John Smith and MILES STANDISH. The Hispanics who ruled Texas and the lucrative ports of California were also seen as "backward."
Expanding the boundaries of the United States was in many ways a cultural war as well. The desire of southerners to find more lands suitable for cotton cultivation would eventually spread slavery to these regions. North of the Mason-Dixon line, many citizens were deeply concerned about adding any more slave states. Manifest destiny touched on issues of religion, money, race, patriotism, and morality. These clashed in the 1840s as a truly great drama of regional conflict began to unfold.
Cultural War
Race
What do we see in this image?
What is it telling us?
How does this image explain the reasons why we headed west?
“As war exists, and withstanding all our efforts to avoid it….”
---President James K. Polk

Is this how Polk REALLY felt?
The desire to fulfill America’s Manifest Destiny pushes Polk to war

Causes of Tension between US and Mexico

Texas revolution
US annexation of Texas
Instability of Mexican government
US territorial expansion
War with Mexico could bring Texas, New Mexico, and California into the Union
Disputed border
Rio Grande
Nueces River
Slavery

James K. Polk & Manifest Destiny
US Annexes Texas ... then wants to negotiate more land
How did Mexico feel about that?
Zachary Taylor marches to Rio Grande (1845-1846)
Mexicans attack - killed 9 Americans
Polk Declares War

How the War Begins
The War
May 1846
Factors of American Victory
4 prong attack
California/New Mexico
American Morale
American Leadership
American Economy
Navy
Artillery

The MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR was formally concluded by the TREATY OF GUADALUPE-HIDALGO. The United States received the disputed Texan territory, as well as NEW MEXICO territory and CALIFORNIA. The Mexican government was paid $15 million — the same sum issued to France for the Louisiana Territory. The United States Army won a grand victory. Although suffering 13,000 killed, the military won every engagement of the war. Mexico was stripped of half of its territory and was not consoled by the monetary settlement.
Wars End
American Imperialism
A Shift in Policy: America Engages the World
Three Factors Fuel American Imperialism

Imperialism

the policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories.

By the 1880s, many Americans felt they should become an imperialist power and establish colonies around the world

1.
Desire for Military Strength
2.
Thirst for New Markets
3.
Belief in Cultural Superiority

The US begins to shift from an isolationist policy toward internationalism and imperialism.


American Imperialism
Desire For Military Strength
Follow the lead of European nations and their global military presence
US begins building its naval power in order to compete with other powerful nations
By 1890, US becomes the world’s third largest naval power

Thirst for New Markets
Advances in technology enables American farms and factories produce more than Americans could consume
Factories need more raw materials
Farms need new markets to sell goods to
Imperialist view foreign trade as the solution to over production and problems of unemployment

Belief in Cultural Superiority
Some Americans combine the idea of
Social Darwinism
and a belief in racial superiority of the Anglo-Saxons to justify imperialism
It is the
US responsibility to spread Christianity and “civilization” to the world’s inferior peoples

US Territorial Expansion

1. Alaska (1867)
Alaska becomes a state in 1959 – rich with timber, minerals, and oil
2. Midway Islands (1867)
3. Hawaii
Important stop for merchants traveling from US to China/India
Sugar plantations
Naval ports and harbors (military influence)
1898 – Hawaii becomes a US territory

To understand our involvement in Cuba and the Pacific during the Spanish American War,
we have to understand our shift in foreign policy
.
Isolationism
Internationalism
Monroe Doctrine
Roosevelt Corrollary
Factors
that led to
Expansion
Factors that changed US Foreign Policy
By the end of the 19th Century, Spain – once the most powerful colonial nation – had lost most of its colonies, but retained the Philippines, Guam, Cuba and Puerto Rico.

For many years, the US wanted to gain control of Cuba; however, Spain refused to sell it. Public support for acquiring Cuba grew as a result of Cuban rebellions against Spain.



Public Support & Unrest Fuel War
American property and investments were being destroyed
300,000 rebels were forced into concentration camps where thousands died.
Claims that Spain poisoned drinking water and fed children to sharks outraged Americans.

**The public wanted the US to get involved in the rebellion.
Cuba Libre
!
Americans Grow Frustrated
How do newspapers or magazines get readers to buy them?

Hint: National Enquirer
Yellow Journalism
Yellow Journalism
sensationalized style of writing which exaggerates the news to lure and enrage readers
Especially stories of Spanish brutality
Children being thrown to sharks, well water poisoned

So how might this contribute to US involvement in War?
What role does Yellow Journalism play in US involvement in the Spanish-American War?
Four Factors that
Lead to War
1. Imperialistic Views
Economic Interests
2. Cuban Revolution
3. De Lôme Letter
4. USS Maine
Using the reading, provide additional information to explain the "four factors" for US involvement in war with Spain.

1. Imperialism
Economic Interests
2. Cuban Revolution
3. De Lôme Letter
4. USS Maine

De Lôme Letter
enrages Americans
Spain apologizes
Ambassador resigns
Americans want war: “
Remember the Maine

Spain agreed to nearly all demands of the US
US declared war on April 20, 1898.

War with Spain Erupts

1.
Philippines
(April 30, 1898)
US fleet destroys Spanish fleet
Spain expects the US to attack Cuba first
11,000 men invade Philippines and the Spanish surrender control

2.
Cuba
(June 1898)
American troops and the
Rough Riders
– a volunteer cavalry under the command of
Teddy

Roosevelt
– invade Cuba
Rough Riders made a dramatic charge up
Kettle Hill
and were victorious (July 1)
This victory cleared the way for troops to
San Juan Hill
US victorious by July 3

3.
Puerto Rico
Invade on July 25, 1898

US Attacks
Fact
vs
Fiction
Choices Documents
Does your reading argue for or against American expansionism?

Identify at least four supporting details for this argument.

If you were to write a thesis statement for this reading, what would it say?
American opinions on expansion differed
.
Treaty of Paris

1. Ended the war after 15 weeks
2. Spain frees Cuba
3. US claims Guam, Puerto Rico
4. US buys Philippines for $20 million

War is Over ...
Empire Building is underway
How do views about American imperialism differ?
Wilson avoids war until an “overt act” occurs
Zimmerman Note
German proposal for alliance with Mexico
Mexico receives “lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona”

GO DEMOCRACY!!!
Russian Government changes
Removes the czar and creates a representative government
A war against brutal dictatorships!!!!!!
April 1917 – America Declares War


How does Wilson “Sell” the War?

What century was this photo taken?
What decade was this photo taken?
On what continent?
What country?
List five adjectives to describe this photo.
List three objects you see.
What is going on in the picture?

Berlin, January 19, 1917

On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare
unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to
keep neutral the United States of America.

If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the
following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together
and together make peace. We shall give general financial
support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost
territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left
to you for settlement....

You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the
above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that
there will be an outbreak of war with the United States and
suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative,
should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once
to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between
Germany and Japan.

Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the
employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to
compel England to make peace in a few months.

Zimmerman
(Secretary of State)

Zimmerman Note

America Questions Neutrality
1914 – Americans want to stay out
3,000 miles away
But … Americans still had ties to
Europe

Divided Loyalties
Socialists – war is between capitalist and imperialists for control of markets and colonies
Pacifists
Naturalized citizens
Parents

Should We or Shouldn’t We …

Causes of World War I

Nationalism
Devotion to interests of own nation
competition
Germany a growing power
Russia protector of Slavic people

Imperialism
Germany industrializes, competes with France, Britain for colonies

Militarism
Development of armed forces

By 1890, Germany has strongest army
Competes with Britain for sea power
Naval arms race

Alliance System
Triple Entente
or
Allies

Central Powers

Alliances give security

World War I Begins

Objectives
Analyze the causes of World War I
Examine the reasons the U.S. entered the war in 1917
Understand the consequences of the war

The First World War

How are these battle scenes similar or different from the way war is waged today?

Is it ever right for America to intervene in foreign conflict?

What options does the government have?

Lusitania sunk by U-boat (May 1915)
May 1915
1,198 killed (128 were American)
Ammunition Ship?
Germany must change tactics or US gets involved

President Woodrow Wilson elected and promises to stay out of war
1916 – another passenger ship
Germans ignore Wilson’s call for Peace
German U-boats will sink all ships in British waters

German Response to Blockade

Germany’s Schlieffen Plan
:
Hold Russia
Defeat France, then Russia
By spring 1915, 2 parallel systems of trenches cross France

No man’s land

Trench warfare

Battle of the Somme
1.2 million casualties

Fighting Starts

Not for the Squeamish!!!

Trench foot
Economic ties with Britain
US remains “neutral”, but most trade is with Britain
Military equipment, gun powder, copper wiring

War Hits Home
British Blockade
By 1917, 750,000 Germans from starvation
German U-boats respond by sinking Allied ships

US Moves Toward War

Warfare is Horrific!!!

European Colonial Possessions in Africa by 1914

Alliance System

Nationalism

Imperialism

Militarism

Alliance System

Before the War …

Waiting to Explode!!!

Alliances & Ethnic rivalries create instability
“The powder keg of Europe”
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
Alliance system

Assassination Leads to War

Waiting to Explode!!!
So ... What foreign policy goals did the US hope to achieve by entering war?
1)
National Security


2)
Free and Open Trade

3)
World Peace

4)
Democratic Governments


5)
Concern for Humanity


Explain
.
America Enters the War
America Mobilizes
Prior to war, only 200,000 servicemen and little combat experience

Raising an Army
Selective Service Act
(May 1917)
All men required to register for the draft
24 million signed up/ 3 million called

Segregated Military
400,000 African Americans served in segregated units, but not allowed in Marines or the Navy
Women not allowed to enlist, but could serve as Nurses, phone operators, or secretaries for no pay


Mass Production
Needed a way to transport men, food and equipment while facing the German U-boats


Four steps to expand its fleet
1. Shipyard workers exempt from draft
2. Public relations campaign for shipyard workers
3. Fabrication techniques
4. Government took control of commercial and private
ships



Navy uses the Convoy system to cross the Atlantic
U-boats cannot sink all the ships
Losses cut in half by fall 1917

Shipping lanes mined
Fighting in Europe
American troops fresh and enthusiastic
Help boost morale of British and French soldiers

America Turns the Tide
Fighting “Over There”

New Weapons
Machine gun, tank, and airplane
Mechanized warfare – relies on machines powered by gas

Early planes flimsy – started using them to bomb factories
Balloons used for observation

War Introduces New Hazards

Disease from rats, lice, dysentery, decaying bodies, and polluted water killed tens of thousands

Shell shock
” – complete emotional collapse caused from battle fatigue, constant bombardment, and other horrors of war
Trench foot
Poison Gas
– mustard gas

Collapse of Germany

November 3, 1918 – Austria-Hungary surrenders
November 9, 1918 – German Kaiser gives up the thrown
November 11, 1918 – agrees to a cease-fire and signs armistice

World War I Destruction
22 million dead (over half are civilian), 20 million wounded
Costs $338 billion

Russia pulls out of war in 1917 and Germans within 50 miles of Paris

American presence prevents Germans from reaching Paris – win battles at Marne and Belleau Wood
American Troops Go on the Offensive
Alvin York
Conscientious objector who turned war hero
Person who opposes warfare on moral grounds of Bible’s “Thou shalt not kill”
Kills 25 and captures 132 with a pistol and rifle

Eddie Rickenbacker
Top race car driver by the time the U.S. entered World War I.
Fighter pilot, winning 26 air victories
Numerous distinctions, including the Medal of Honor
American Heroes
Treaty of Versailles, 28 June 1919
Supposed to create stability
– but countries became angry
Nine new nations formed
No army for Germany
Germany - $33 billion in
reparations
to Allies
Lost colonies
Treaty humiliates Germany
War-Guilt clause

Russia loses territory
Creates SSR to regain territory

Strengthened government and military
Accelerated social change
19th Amendment (1920)
Political instability in Europe
Vengeance for Europe
Helps give rise to Hitler

Legacy of War

New Countries Formed
Full transcript