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Transcript of Paulo Freire
- Born into a comfortable middle class family which was an unlikely setting at this time, culturally, economically and socially.
- Repeated two years of education which delayed his entry into secondary school and later university. ( Taylor, 1993)
- Exposure to the non working class during the great depression, when his family suffered temporary financial difficulty shaped his concerns for the opressed ( Taylor, 1993) What is a critical perspective? Conscientization (critical consciousness)
The process of developing a critical awareness of one’s social reality through reflection and action.
Action is fundamental because it is the process of changing the reality.
Paulo Freire says that we all acquire social myths which have a dominant tendency, and so learning is a critical process which depends upon uncovering real problems and actual needs. (Freire Institute, 2013). Main Ideas Praxis
Praxis is the process by which a theory, lesson, or skill is enacted, practiced, embodied, or realized.
It is not simply action based on reflection. It is action which embodies certain qualities. These include a commitment to human well being and the search for truth, and respect for others.
Praxis is always risky. It requires that a person 'makes a wise and prudent practical judgement about how to act in this situation. (Freire, 1993). Main Ideas References - Freire, P. (1993) Pedagogy of the oppressed. Portugal: Continuium.
- Freire, P. (1998). Pedagogy of Freedom. Roman and Littlefield.
- Freire Institute. (2013).Freire institute. Retrieved from http;//www.freire.org/Conscientization Freire Project. (n.d). The Freire Project: The Paulo and Nita Freire International Project for Critical Pedagogy. .retrieved from http://www.freireproject.org/ko/content/critical-pedagogy-tv
- Gerhardt, H.P.( 2000). The quarterly review of comparative education. Prospectus, vol. XXIII, no. 3/4, 1993, p.439–58. Retrieved from www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/archive/.../freiree.PDF
- Giroux, H. (2010). Rethinking education as the practice of freedom: Paulo Freire and the promise of critical pedagogy. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login?url=http://archive.truthout.org/10309_Giroux_Freire Main Ideas Main Ideas Lived Experience
Students can bring in prior experiences into the classroom and use them make a connection to the school curriculum.
Establish an intimate connection
•Using lived experiences can encourage productivity in the classroom, dialogue and participation.
Freire argued that lived experinces are extremely important for a childs development. (Freire, 1998). Main Ideas Dialogue
A way of knowing and should never be viewed as a mere tactic to involve students in a particular task.
Knowledge is constructed throughout dialogue.
Silence should not be seen as a signal of lack of engagement but instead should be seen as critical reflection
It is important to develop the ability to listen as well as engage and discuss.
(Roberts, 2008) "Individuals cannot be truly human. Knowledge emerges only through invention and re-invention, through the restless, impatient, continuing, hopeful inquiry human beings pursue in the world, with the world, and with each other.”
(Freire, 1968). Main Ideas Conscientization and dialogue's influence on education.
Freires ideas of dialogue and conscientization have both influenced education in the way that teachers:
Gain prior knowledge.
Construct knowledge for the students
Allow the students to reflect and take action on their learning. Underachievement in NZ When education has become the site of conformity (national standards) we feel Freire's work and interest in the opressed is as important as ever.
- Some 14% of New Zealand students do not achieve as well in reading, maths and science as the rest.
- At NCEA level 2, about 20% of New Zealand students do not complete the qualifiction
(NZ Principals Federation)
National Standards 2012:
- Reading: 23.7% were below national standard
- Writing: 32% were below national standard
- Maths: 27.6% were below national standard
Fairfax NZ News From a critical perspective
Society is seen as a site of struggle
There are unequal power relationships
Focus on social group membership rather than individuals
Who are critical educators?
Educators that teach to influence others lives
Believe that knowledge is about building upon previous knowledge
Education is about change from what is to what could be. (Jaramillo, 2013). Why is this happening? Reasons for underachievement in NZ schools:
- Lack of presence in class:
students are disengaged in their learning so they do not want to be there
- Teaching to the test:
Below standard teachers are producing a negative focus on repeated, simple and isolated tasks
- Students not being engaged in learning:
Students dont feel enaged as it does not relate to them
- Lack of lived experience:
students need tasks that they feel can be used in future experiences What is being done? Te Kotahitanga:
This is a project running underneath the Ka Hikitia policy. It is about letting students be themselves and having students also bring their own experiences to the classroom, having students feel as though their experiences are useful and relevant.
Teachers are also creating engaging, more welcoming learning environments and getting rid of the concept of "teaching to the test".
This will raise the levels of engaged learners in the classroom and raise the attendece levels of students in schools.
Education is key in breaking social class barriers, it acknowledges in equality and is viewed as hope for those underachieving and New zealands so called underclass. References - Hartevelt, J. & Francis, C. (22 September 2012). How New Zealand schools rate. Retrieved from http://www.stuff.co.nz/national/education/7715044/How-New-Zealand-schools-rate
- Jaramillo, N. (2013, 04, 13). Critical Pedagogy. Unpublished lecture notes, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
- McLaren & Jaramilo (2007). Pedagogy and Praxis in the Age of Empire. The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
- New Zealand Principals’ Federation. (2012). What to do about New Zealand’s’ underachieving children. Retrieved from http://www.nzpf.ac.nz/list/%252FWhat%20to%20do%20about%20New%20Zealand’s%20underachieving%20children
- Roberts, P. (2008). In V. M. Carpenter, J. Jesson, P. Roberts & M. Stephenson (Eds.), Nga kaupapa here: Connections and contradictions in education (pp. 25-35). South Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning.
- Taylor, P. (1993). The texts of Paulo Freire. Great Britain: Biddles Ltd.
-TKI. (2013). Raising Maori achievement; Making a difference in Maori education. Retrieved from: http://tekotahitanga.tki.org.nz/