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History Project

on 12 May 2014

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Transcript of 1960's

Separate but Equal
Plessy v. Ferguson
Civil Rights in Alaska
Elizabeth Peratrovich
“Will the equal rights bill eliminate discrimination in Alaska?”
“Have you eliminated larceny or murder by passing a law against it? No law will eliminate crimes but, at least you as legislators, can assert to the world that you recognize the evil of the present situation and speak your intent to help us overcome discrimination.”
Civil Rights
Pop Culture
Vietnam War
Moon Landing
Berlin Wall
Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka
Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson
Martin Luther King Jr.
Used Ghandi's peaceful methods of protest (such as sit-ins)
Spoke over 25,000 times
At the time was the youngest Nobel Peace Prize winner (age 35)
Assassinated on balcony of hotel by James Earl Ray or Lloyd Jowers
Malcolm X
B: 5/19/25
D: 2/21/65
Far less peaceful than Dr. King

"Do you consider yourself militant?”
“I consider myself Malcolm.”
Rosa Parks
Passive Sit-Ins
Black Panthers
Often at food vendors
B: 2/4/14
D: 10/24/2005
Claudette Colvin
Emmett Till
Upset after Emmett Till's death, she refused to give up her seat
Emmett Till was killed after having supposedly flirted with a Caucasian woman
Claudette Colvin refused to move prior to Parks, but she was 15 and pregnant so she was not the ideal spokesperson for the Civil Rights Movement
Fighting Back!
Protested with weapons
Killed cops while protesting
Civil Rights
War between France and Viet Minh.

Ends with the French surrendering.

The Geneva Accords split Vietnam into a communist north and non communist south along the 17th parallel (temporarily)
March on Washington
In 1963 the Civil Rights Movement entered Washington
About 250,000 people gathered at the Lincoln Monument
It was here that Martin Luther King Jr. gave the "I Have A Dream" Speech
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal."
Presidential Views
Kennedy was subtle at first
As he couldn't not stop the
movement he "helped guide
it's torrential currents."
Weird fact:
Both Lincoln & Kennedy (both had large impact on civil rights), were succeeded by their Vice President Johnson after their assassination.
(and both were shot in the head)
In the Constitution
About 7 ½ months after Kennedy's assassination, Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act. (1964)
Forbade the discrimination of sex and race in hiring, promoting, and firing.
Moon Landing

Commander Neil A. Armstrong,
Command module pilot Micheal Collins
Lunar module pilot Edwin E. Aldrin Jr.
"That's one small step
for a man, one giant leap
for mankind."
On July 20th, 1969, at 4:18 pm EDT
October 22nd 1962
Quarantine to prevent military
supplies from being brought
to the island by the Soviets
John F. Kennedy
January 20th, 1961
"Ask not what your country can do for you--ask what you can do for your country."
Extend the civil rights
movement to developing
countries through
Alliance for Progress
Sought to bring American
idealism to the rest of the
November 22nd, 1963
The 1960's
Berlin Wall
Moon Landing
Cuban Missile Crisis
John F. Kennedy
-When World War II ended, the Allied powers divided Germany into four different zones, which was occupied each by the U.S., England, France, and the Soviet Union, as they agreed at the Potsdam Conference. The same was also done with Germany's capital city of Berlin.
-Eventually, the relationship between the Allied powers and the Soviet Union turned Germany into democracy (West) versus Communism (East).
Through August 12th and 13th, 1961, trucks with soldiers and construction workers rumbled through East Berlin and began tearing up streets that entered into West Berlin. They dug up holes to put up concrete posts and strung barbed wire all across the border.
Many Berliners were not able to cross the border to their homes, jobs, and loved ones for decades.
-The first two versions of the wall, which were barbed wire and concrete blocks, were eventually replaced by a revised third version in 1965.

-It consisted of a concrete wall, supported by steel girders.
Pop Culture
art: Andy Warhol
•Born from Slovakian immigrants as Andrew Warhola (August 6, 1928)
•Famous illustrator for Vogue
•Commercial artist & an author (A is an Alphabet and Love is a Pink Cake)
•Recently had artwork at the Anchorage Museum, so you’ve probably seen it.
•1960s were his turning point: the canvases & such that we all know and love.
television: Batman

Now known for the series cheesiness, Batman was then at the peak of technology and entertainment.

The cheerier story of the tragic renowned hero.

At this point it was Adam West as Batman.

Interview from a man who watched as a child:“I loved it.”
television: Doctor Who
•Started in the 1960s just after President Kennedy’s assassination.
•Produced by the BBC
•Science Fiction series
•Longest running SF show
•Basically there is an alien called the Doctor and he has a TARDIS (Time And Relative Dimension In Space) where he can travel through time and space. He usually goes to current for us Earth finds a companion (because he’s the last of his kind) and goes on adventures.
•The key factor that lets this show still go on today is the fact that the Doctor changes, not in some cheesy “his face needed surgery” kind of way. His alien-kind have the ability to regenerate when they die so the actor changes when necessary.
The French Indochina War 1946-1954
The Forces at War
Battle of Ia Drang (Nov 14-18 1965)
PAVN wanted to cut South Vietnam in half.

U.S. launches "Heliborne" attacks, air and artillery fires, strikes by B-52 bombers

Resulted in :
Victory for the U.S.
Death of 1,800 PAVN and Viet Cong troops
Gulf of Tonkin
August 2 & 4 1964
two U.S. ships are fired on in the Gulf of Tonkin by North Vietnam naval forces

Gulf of Tonkin resolution- gave LBJ the authority to go to war in southeast Asia with out an official yes from congress.
LBJ's Not-Really-A-Plan "plan"
Welcome to the Jungle

women and children
psychological strain
Guerrilla Warfare
Natural Terrain
Booby traps and physical advantage
impact of environment on engagement
U.S. Response
Napalm bombs
The Battle of Khe Sanh (Jan 21, 1968)
PAVN bombards the U.S. Marine garrison

One of the "longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War," lasting 77 days.
The Tet Offensive
Tet "Truce"
7-day cease-fire
Viet Cong, Pavn take advantage of this.

1st Battle of Saigon (Jan 31- March 7, 1968)
PAVN, Viet Cong attack Saigon
U.S. embassy, presidential palace attacked.

Battle of Hue
PAVN, Viet Cong quickly take over town.

U.S. forces beat back both attacks, but
Saigon suffers major damage and 4000
civilian casualties in Hue.
Aftermath of the Tet Offensive
Turning point-

Negative media coverage.

Congress reduces the war budget.

Johnson decides not to escalate the war any further.

Johnson announces he will not be running for another term as president.
My Lai Massacre
Search and destroy soldiers looking for the 48th Viet Cong Battalion.

Roughly 500 South Vietnamese civilians in the village of My Lai slaughtered by
U.S. soldiers

Higher ranking army officials kept it quiet for about a year.
Sparked international outrage
Contributed to the anti-war movement
1969- Nixon inaugurated

Expands war into Laos and Cambodia (hoping) to disrupt the Ho Chi Minh trail, thinking it will end the war quicker.

Nixon "OK's" Operation Breakfast (Mar 1969- May 1970)
secret bombing of Cambodia for more than a year without Congress or the American public knowing.

Pulling out U.S. troops, trying to hand combat back to the South Vietnamese
Vietnam Beyond the 1960s
Easter Offensive 1972
Attack by the PAVN as last U.S. troops are leaving Vietnam.
fails, underestimate remaining military force

Paris Peace Accords 1973
War briefly ended between the north and south
Last U.S. troops pulled out
End of the draft!
Ends the United States' involvement in the war
Vietnam Beyond the 1960s
Fall of Saigon 1975
After troops pulled out, one final push from the North
South Vietnam collapses, surrenders to North Vietnam

"Reunified" as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

Won the battle, lost the war.
The Anti-War Movement
Televising of the war
Sympathized with the North Vietnamese
Opposed the draft
26th amendment
Opposition of war in general
Killing of Innocent Civilians
Environmental damage
Growing number of dying soldiers.
Economic impact on the Great Society
Insulted, spat on returning vets
"All We Are Saying, Is Give Peace A Chance!"
Counter Culture
Rise in political activism amongst college students.

Openness of sexuality and attitudes.

“Turn on, tune in, and drop out” attitude

Questioning the societal norms

“generational gap”
Counter Culture: Sexual Politics
Women's rights
Rise in the popularity of birth control and contraceptives.
Decline in birthrate, rise in abortions and divorces
Kicking traditional gender roles
More women in college
Women more involved in the New Left and the civil rights movement

National Organization for Women (NOW)
All You Need Is Love!
Vietnam War
Lyndon B. Johnson
Assumes role as president after Kennedy's death ('63-'64)
Elected as President (1964- 1969)
Didn't run for a second term

Johnson's Great Society
social reform programs
wanted to eliminate poverty
Resemblance to New Deal
Kennedy's programs
Civil Rights Act
Welfare, Medicare, Environmental, Education reform
John Lennon

March on the Pentagon 1967

Kent State Massacre 1970
4 dead, 9 wounded
PAVN (People's Army of Vietnam)
- North Vietnamese army.

Viet Cong
- Southern communist sympathizers.

Viet Minh
- Opposed French and Japanese rule during the French Indochina war, U.S. intervention in the Vietnam war.

(Army of the Republic of Vietnam)- South Vietnamese army.
Fighting a defensive rather than offensive war

North Vietnam:
Aerial assaults-no ground invasion

South Vietnam
contain theater of war, no expansion of conflict
no blocking/disruption of Ho Chi Minh Trail
The Bay of Pigs
On April 17, 1961, 1400 Cuban exiles launched what became a botched invasion at the Bay of Pigs on the south coast of Cuba.
(Beckett & Teel)
(Supreme Court of the United States)
(Nobel Media)
(Estate of Malcolm X)
(Sorensen, 1965)
Music of the 60's (cont.)
-The Beatles, The Who, The Rolling Stones, Cream, The Yardbirds, Donovan, Manfred Mann, The Kinks, Herman's Hermits, Tom Jones, Dusty Springfield, The Animals, The Marvelettes, The Supremes, Marvin Gaye, The Four Tops, The Drifters, The Temptations, The Miracles, Stevie Wonder, Gladys Knight & the Pips, The Spinners, Aretha Franklin, The Beach Boys, The Ventures, The Champs, The Doors, The Grateful Dead, The Jimi Hendrix Experience, Jefferson Airplane, Jan and Dean, The Kingsmen, The Trashmen Janis Joplin, Creedence Clearwater Revival, Steppenwolf, Roy Orbison, Procol Harum, The Rolling Stones, The Who, The Animals, The Band, The Troggs, Bob Dylan, Simon & Garfunkel, The Mamas & the Papas, Buffalo Springfield, Crosby, Stills & Nash, The Lovin' Spoonful, The Byrds, The Turtles, Gordon Lightfoot, Peter, Paul and Mary.
Music of the 60's
(John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum)
(The White House)
Full transcript