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1600s Baroque Style

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Wendy Hawkins-Korona

on 2 May 2014

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Transcript of 1600s Baroque Style

INTRODUCING
1600-1700s Baroque Style
THE CLASSIC ART

"Rome, Italy: From the “Whore of Babylon” to the Resplendent Bride of Christ" from Smart History and Khan Academy,
When Martin Luther tacked his 95 theses to the doors of Wittenburg Cathedral in 1517 protesting the Catholic Church’s corruption, he initiated a movement that would transform the religious, political, and artistic landscape of Europe. For the next century, Europe would be in turmoil as new political and religious boundaries were determined, often through bloody military conflicts. Only in 1648, with the signing of the Treaty of Westphalia, did the conflicts between Protestants and Catholics subside in continental Europe.

Martin Luther focused his critique on what he saw as the Church’s greed and abuse of power.
(http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/1600-1700-the-Baroque.html)

So Awesome; true Baroque Style
Here is proof of the magnificent expression in the divine and what it meant to the Catholic church.--Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Cathedra Petri (or Chair of St. Peter), gilded bronze, gold, wood, stained glass, 1647-53 (apse of Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, Rome) (Smart History and Khan Academy)
Giovanni Battista Gaulli, also known as il Baciccio, The Triumph of the Name of Jesus, Il Gesù ceiling fresco, 1672-1685
Smart History and Khan Academy describe how, Giovanni Battista Gaulli, turned to daring feats of illusionism that blurred not only the boundaries between painting, sculpture, and architecture, but also those between the real and depicted worlds. In so doing, the divine was made physically present and palpable. Whether through shocking realism, dynamic movement, or exuberant ornamentation, seventeenth-century art is meant to impress. It aims to convince the viewer of the truth of its message by impacting the senses, awakening the emotions, and activating, even sharing the viewer’s space
(http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/1600-1700-the-Baroque.html).
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Italian
Baroque
Baroque—style began in Rome, Italy and from there to Europe around the 1600s. I chose the artworks in the Baroque style because it tells a story, illuminates Christ, and reveals beauty and power. This period of style reflects inflated suggestions, easy interpretation, comedy, energy, enthusiasm, and greatness in all areas of art: paint, sculpting, building, writing, music, and dance. This wing will be devoted to the Italian, Flemish, Dutch, Spanish, and French Baroque Styles and give you a bit of the backgrounds of each. Towards the end of the tour, you will get to see video from the enormous home of Louis the XIV. the palace, Versailles, which became the King's official residence in 1682.
Giovanni Battista Gaulli, also known as il Baciccio, The Triumph of the Name of Jesus, Il Gesù ceiling fresco, 1672-1685
http://(smarthistory.khanacademy.org/1600-1700-the-Baroque.html)

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Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Pluto and Proserpina, marble, 1621-22 (Galleria Borghese, Rome) (Smart History and Khan Academy)

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See the dog supporting the statue? This is symbolic for a power animal, loyalty, friendship, and unconditional love. Additionally, the folks at Smart History share,
Baroque art is the style of the late 1500s and 1600s. The important thing to keep in mind now is that the Baroque style in Italy is the direct result of the Counter-Reformation. The Church needs a powerful style of art to use in the fight against Martin Luther—and that's exactly what the Baroque style is—it is powerful, dramatic, muscular, sometimes frightening, and it really gets to you! Bernini, one of the greatest artists of the Baroque period, worked in Rome, often for the papacy like Michelangelo before him. To get an idea of what a great sculptor he is, and how he can make marble seem like human flesh (http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/baroque-italy.html).
Flanders
Baroque

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Peter Paul Rubens, The Elevation of the Cross, 1610, oil on wood, tripict,15' 1 7/8" x 11' 1 1/2" (central panel), 15' 1 7/8" x 4' 11" (wings) (now located in the transpet of the Cathedral in Antwerp (SmartHistory.KhanAcademy.org).
Smart History reveals,
The two most important artists of the Baroque era in Northern Europe (what we knew as Flanders in the 15th century)—Rubens and Rembrandt—worked under enormously different circumstances, even though they lived only a few hundred miles apart, because Flanders became divided along religious lines in the 16th century. The area which is today Belgium remained Catholic (where Rubens lived), while the area which is today the Netherlands, or Holland (where Rembrandt lived) broke away from Catholic Spain (which had controlled it) and established an independent Republic that was predominantly Calvinist
(http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/baroque-flanders.html).
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Dutch Republic Baroque
Johannes Vermeer, The Art of Painting, 1666-69
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Johannes Vermeer, The Art of Painting, 1666-69
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EXHIBITIONS: National Gallery of Art offer,
The Art of Painting holds a special place within Vermeer's oeuvre. While it displays all the captivating characteristics of his artistic genius -- a carefully observed seventeenth-century Dutch interior illuminated by softly diffused light, exquisitely painted details, and a frozen moment imbued with psychological depth -- it stands apart from his other works in its imposing scale and pronounced allegorical character… Even though the family was left in dire financial straits, the painting was not sold. On 24 February 1676 Vermeer's widow, Catharina Bolnes, transferred ownership of the work to her mother, Maria Thins, to keep the picture out of the hands of creditors. The legal document drawn up at this time provides the title of the work: "a piece of painting [by] her Late husband in which was depicted The Art of Painting [De Schilderkunst]"(National Gallery of Art: Washington DC 2014).

http://www.nga.gov/exhibitions/verm_2.shtm
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Spanish Baroque
Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Las Meninas, or The Family of Felipe IV Ca. 1656, Oil, Canvas,318 cm x 276 cm
(Museo Nacional Del Prado) (Smart History and Khan Academy)
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Peter Paul Rubens, The Elevation of the Cross, 1610, oil on wood, 15' 1 7/8" x 11' 1 1/2" (central panel), 15' 1 7/8" x 4' 11" (wings) (now located in the transpet of the Cathedral in Antwerp (SmartHistory.KhanAcademy.org)

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Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Las Meninas, or The Family of Felipe IV Ca. 1656, Oil, Canvas,318 cm x 276 cm
(Museo Nacional Del Prado)
Here is a charming portrait of Felipe IV’s daughter, Infanta Margarita. Her caregivers are present “in a hall of Madrid’s Alcazar Palace” (Museo Nacional del Prado 2014). Velazquez is well-known for this portrait that “offers a complex composition built with admirable skill in the use of perspective, the depiction of light, and the representation of atmosphere ” (Museo Nacional del Prado 2014). He is painting himself in a primacy fashion.

Margarita (1651-1673), wears white and appears in the center of the composition, surrounded by her ladies in waiting, the “meninas” María Agustina de Sarmiento and Isabel de Velasco, along with two court buffoons, María Bárbola and Nicolasito Pertusato, and a mastiff. Behind her, the duenna Marcela de Ulloa converses with the quartermaster, José Nieto, who is in the doorway.

The King and Queen, Felipe IV and María de Austria (1634-1696) are reflected in the mirror at the back of the room, leading to series of extraordinarily complex spatial relations (Museo Nacional del Prado 2014).

Hyacinthe Rigaud, Louis XIV, King of France and Navarre, oil on canvas, 1701 (Smart History and Knan Academy)
French Baroque
Hyacinthe Rigaud, Louis XIV, King of France and Navarre, oil on canvas, 1701 (Musée du Louvre, Paris)
The Sun King
In France, Louis XIV (who reigned from 1661 to 1715), also known as the "Sun King," centralized the government around his own person and used art and architecture in the service of the monarchy.
“The French monarchs ruled with absolute power,” that is unlike a legislative body you’d see in England. They believed he had divine authority. Louis XIV developed the Royal Acdemy of Fine Arts in an attempt to control the art world and education thereof “by imposing a classicizing style as well as other regulations and standards on art and artists” (Smart History and Khan Academy 2005).
Hyacinthe Rigaud was trying to capture “the majesty and authority” of his position more so than his portrait “as well as our own insignificance in his presence” (Smart History Khan Academy 2005).
The textures of the ermine and velvets and embroidered silk are so sumptuous that the eye focuses on them more than on the face of the Sun King.

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Versailles
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Galerie des Glaces (or Hall of Mirrors)
iN 1682, to show his power, Louis XIV built a magnificent palace to live in with 700 rooms and just a few miles from Paris. I’ve added a video, yet its size will still be incomprehensible.
You just saw a photo “the famous Galerie des Glaces (or Hall of Mirrors), a room with 17 mirrors facing the windows that look out onto fabulous gardens” (Smart History and Khan Academy 2005).
Smart History explains,
The ceiling of this room is decorated with paintings extolling the virtues and achievements of Louis himself… Louis XIV eventually invited the higher French aristocrats to live there and wait upon him. And so Versailles was not just a place to live—it became the symbol of the French monarchy itself, and therefore everything about the decor had to speak of the power and accomplishments of the King. Every aspect of the King's life (waking, eating, everything!) was thoroughly ritualized, convincing everyone there of the incredible majesty of the King. The thousands of people who lived at Versailles also required entertainment, and so Versailles also became the seat of lavish spectacles including ballets, balls, hunts and receptions, all presided over by the King (Smart History and Khan Academy 2005).
The History and beauty of Versailles On YouTube
A personal tour of history
THANK YOU
Credits
ALL STILL Pictures and videos of Versailles came from the websites PREZI.com, and YouTube.com, but their identifying information came from SmartHistory.KhanAcademy.com
“Creative Commons License.” (Nd.) Retrieved from <a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/"><img alt="Creative Commons License" style="border-width:0" src="http://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-sa/2.5/88x31.png" /></a><br />This work is licensed under a <a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 Generic License</a>. 25 April 2014.
Museo Nacional Del Prado. Madrid. On-line gallery: The Family of Felipe. (2014). Retrieved from https://www.museodelprado.es/en/the-collection/online-gallery/on-line-gallery/obra/the-family-of-felipe-iv-or-las-meninas/. 1 May 2014.
National Gallery of Art. EXHIBITIONS. National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. (2014).
http://www.nga.gov/exhibitions/verm_2.shtm. 1 May 2014.
Prezi Inc. (2014). Accessed 1 May 2014.
“Smart History and Khan Academy.” 1600-1700-the-Baroque. (2005). Retrieved from
http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/1600-1700-the-Baroque.html. 1 May 2014.
“Smart History and Khan Academy.” Baroque-Italy. (2005). Retrieved from
http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/baroque-italy.html. 1 May 2014.
“Smart History and Khan Academy.” Baroque-Flanders. (2005). Retrieved from
http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/baroque-flanders.html. 1 May 2014.
“Smart History and Khan Academy.” Vermeers-the-Art-of-Painting. (2005). Retrieved from
http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/vermeers-the-art-of-painting.html. 1 May 2014.
“Smart History and Khan Academy.” Baroque-France. Retrieved form http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/baroque-france.html. 1 May 2014.
“YouTube.” History of the Palace of Versailles [HD]. by Thunderworks. Version Française ici : Retrieved from 1 May 2014.
“YouTube.” Chateau de Versailles, France [HD]. by WorldSiteGuides. Château de Versailles. Retrieved from 1 May. 2014.
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Hyacinthe Rigaud, Louis XIV, King of France and Navarre, oil on canvas, 1701 (Musée du Louvre, Paris)
Smart Histotry explains "The Sun King,"
In France, Louis XIV (who reigned from 1661 to 1715), also known as the "Sun King," centralized the government around his own person and used art and architecture in the service of the monarchy.
“The French monarchs ruled with absolute power,” that is unlike a legislative body you’d see in England. They believed he had divine authority. Louis XIV developed the Royal Acdemy of Fine Arts in an attempt to control the art world and education thereof “by imposing a classicizing style as well as other regulations and standards on art and artists” (Smart History and Khan Academy 2005).
Hyacinthe Rigaud was trying to capture “the majesty and authority” of his position more so than his portrait “as well as our own insignificance in his presence” (Smart History Khan Academy 2005).
The textures of the ermine and velvets and embroidered silk are so sumptuous that the eye focuses on them more than on the face of the Sun King (Smart History and Khan Academy 2005)..

My most favorite
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ALMOST THERE
with “Creative Commons License”
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In closing, pray that you have enjoyed your tour here at the new wing of the museum. We have looked at Italian, Flemish, Dutch, Spanish, and French Baroque Styles and I gave you a bit of the background from each era; and then, got to share a video with you on the great palace Versailles. To be sure, Europe is a great place to visit.
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Smart History and Khan Academy
http://www.nga.gov/exhibitions/verm_2.shtm
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