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Egyptian Architecture

Social Studies Project
by

Katherine Mao

on 28 March 2015

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Transcript of Egyptian Architecture

Introduction
In this presentation, you will learn about three types of different pyramids, the structure, building process, famous pyramids and temples in ancient Egypt.
The Structure of Pyramids
The building process of pyramids
could take over 20 years to build
The building process of temples
mainly used mud, limestone, mortar, and wood
basalt for flooring in mortuary temples (temples built for kings)
mortar for spaces between blocks
walls were covered with scenes carved on stone and brightly painted
took around 2,000 years, since they rebuilt over and over again and continued to add more overtime
A
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By:
Katherine Mao, Catherine Burns,

Brian Felag, and Max Saxer

The Lesson plan
The Structure of temples
Famous Pyramids
The great pyramid
(The Pyramid of Khufu)
Pyramid of khafre
Pyramid of Menkaure
Temple of Luxor
temple of Karnak
famous temples
Credits:
history.com
ancientegypt.co.uk
touregypt.net
discoveringegypt.com
nationalgeographic.com
egyptism.com
skywalker.cochise.edu
ancient.eu
The step pyramid
Key terms
pyramid
~n.~ a huge building with four sloping triangle-shaped sides; an ancient Egyptian stone monument where pharaohs and their treasures were buried
temple
~n.~ a building for religious practice
home of the the gods and goddesses
dedicated to a god or goddess
that god or goddess was worshiped there by temple priests and the
pharaoh
they were also great places for learning/education
hypostyle hall-only priests could go in it, second (peristyle) hall, sanctuary- god's private apartment, the sacred lake- public swimming/ bathing pool, pylons- ceremonial gateway
ceilings got lower and slanted upwards as you moved farther into the
temple
,
The tops of columns of some Egyptian temples were carved to look like palm trees or papyrus reeds.
the shrine was where the gods or goddess would have live
divided into 3 sections and had an open courtyard
first type of
pyramid
the Egyptians built
series of six
mastabas
leading to the top of the structure
built on an angle
built as a
tomb
for Khafre’s son, Menkaure
about 228 feet tall
red granite from Aswan on the bottom and white limestone for the top
located southwest from the Great Pyramid and the Pyramid of Khafre
Giza
~n.~ an ancient Egyptian city; the site of the Great Pyramid
pharaoh
~n.~ a ruler in ancient Egypt
mastaba
~n.~ an ancient Egyptian tomb, rectangular in shape with sloping sides and a flat roof
alabaster
~n.~ a fine-grained, translucent form of gypsum, typically white, often carved into ornaments
The True Pyramid
built by Imhotep in 2780 B.C.; built for the
pharaoh

named Djoser
quartz sand and limestone on the surface
first true pyramid(the Red Pyramid) built by Sneferu
changed from bent sides of a bent pyramid to almost sloped side
The bent pyramid
mix between a step and true pyramid
Step Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara (close to modern day Cairo)
the Red Pyramid
Bent Pyramid at Dahshur
step pyramid for core out of stone and mud
packing stone to fill in gaps
limestone or granite for outside casing
built by Sneferu
first attempt at the true pyramid, but lacked of stability
middle
pyramid
at
Giza;
built as a
tomb
for Khufu's son, Khafre
the Great Sphinx has the body of a lion, and Khafre's face; guards the pyramid of Khafre
about 447.5 feet tall
seemed taller than the Great Pyramid; it was built on higher elevation
floor made of

alabaster
Three Types of Pyramids
websites
books and articles
T
he Ancient World
by Prentice Hall
largest of the
pyramids
of
Giza
built over a 20 year period
took about 20,000 workers
used about 2,300,000 stone bricks
mostly limestone and granite
481.4 feet tall originally, but high winds caused it to shrink over the years
one of the oldest remaining Seven Wonders of the World
The Great Pyramid of Giza(left)
during the Old Kingdom, a time when Egypt was very powerful
built by slaves or foreigners forced into labor
mostly built with limestone, pink granite, basalt,
alabaster
,
and stone from Nubia
low-grade limestone for core, fine limestone for outside surface and walls
pink granite for sparring and interior walls
basalt for flooring
alabaster
for underground quarries
dangerous job; many men lost lives from falling blocks
used sleds, wooden rollers, levers, and ramps so that it was easier to maneuver the bricks from place to place
Be sure to pay attention and take notes. There will be an open-notes quiz at the end, so be prepared.
built as a
tomb
for the pharaoh, Khufu
The Structure
Famous Temples and Pyramids
east banks of the Nile
3 km north of the Temple of Luxor
dedicated to the Theban triad
largest religious building ever built at the time
It's so big that St. Peters, Milan, and Notre Dame could all fit inside its walls.
Nubian soldiers guarded Karnak
Opet Festival was held annually at Karnak and Luxor
gateways were 98 feet tall
excavated in 1903
east banks of the Nile and parallel to the riverbanks
built by Amenhotep the third from 1390-1352 B.C. and finished by Tutankhamen and Horemheb,
built during the New Kingdom
granite shrine at the end was dedicated to Alexander the Great
buried with sand and silt under the houses and streets of people in Luxor, helped preserve it
temple
was dedicated to Amon- Ra (the king of the gods), Mut, and Khonsu, also known as the Theban triad
wall decorations of victories won at battle
it's still standing today

The Atlas of Ancient Egypt
by Neil Morris
The Building Process
used as
tombs
for the
pharaohs
and their queens
the bottom starts of bigger and gets smaller as its elevation gets higher
grand gallery leads to the king's
chamber
King's
chamber
air shafts
Queen's
chamber
underground
chamber
(subterranean chamber)
descending and ascending passageways
you will learn about...
What did pyramids first look like?
Who built the first pyramid?
What materials did they use?
What kind of people worked?
How long did it take?
What did the outside look like? What about the inside?
What were pyramids and temples used for?
What were some special features of the pyramid or temple?
Pyramid of Menkaure
Temple of Luxor
Temple of Karnak
Here's a short video about Egyptian pyramids
weighed about 6.5 million tons
http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/the-egyptian-pyramids
(click on the link below)
chamber
~n.~a private room, typically a bedroom
tomb
~n.~ a large vault, typically an underground one, for burying the dead
Geography Impact
Temples were used as a gathering place just like in Milford, we gather in the City Hall to make decisions.
Modern Day connections
need a flat surface/base or else the rain and erosion can cause it to shift to a different position
Pyramids were built on the west banks of the Nile River because the west was known as "the land of the dead".
Pyramids
Temples
Temples were used to worship their god. In our society, we worship our gods in churches.
Pyramids were used to worship the dead. Now a days we worship the dead throughout wakes, funerals and cemeteries.
To build pyramids, they had workers. Now a days we have workers who get payed to build buildings like the Empire State Building.
Temples were provided with a flat plain that they needed in order to build a temple. These plains were along the West Banks of the Thebes River.
Pyramids
Temples
Temples provided protection from floods.
Sit back and enjoy...
8 key terms
cutaway of the Great Pyramid
cutaway of the Temple of Luxor
Men building a temple by hand.
fertile land from the Nile helped build the pyramids; They used mud and fertile land to make bricks.
made out of limestone, and regular stone in order for them to last longer
west banks of the Nile
Milford, CT City Hall
enlarged with 10 feet of limestone so that it could look bigger
pyramid
was part of Djoser's complex
The

End
Thanks for watching our prezi. We
hope you learned some cool information!
quiz time
Please take out a pencil, not a pen.
This is an open- notes quiz, so you can use the notes you took to help you.
Good luck!
Pyramids b
y Anne Millard
After you are finished with the quiz, there is an ancient Egypt word search. Everyone will get a quiz at the end of class. Please do not rush to get the quiz done. Keep in mind that this quiz will count as part of your PowerSchool grade.
The Different types
of pyramids
used math to help plan out how they were going to build the pyramid
In your groups, discuss what you think The three types of pyramids are.
Come on, brain!
You know what the answer is!
Use those little
brains of yours.
flat plains
limestone
Pyramid of Khafre
the Great Sphinx
Full transcript