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World Geography Chapter 6. The Cultural Geo. of the U.S. & C
Transcript of World Geography Chapter 6. The Cultural Geo. of the U.S. & C
Suburbs- nearby neighborhoods, and outlying communities surrounding a major city.
Metropolitan- a central city and the surrounding suburbs.
More people live in suburbs than in central cities.
Megalopolis- when cities are so close together that the suburbs overlap to form a single urban area.
There are many port cities in the U.S. and Canada.
Many major inland cities are also located near water.
Section 2: History and Government.
The first people that migrated came from Asia.
Strait- a narrow passageway connecting two large bodies of water.
The Bering Strait connects the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean (it is believed that during the Ice Age, the level of water in the Pac. lowered exposing a land bridge.
The early people became known as native americans.
Depending on location, native americans used different resources for survival.
States, Provinces, and Territories
Section 1: Population Patterns
Immigrants- people who leave their home countries to settle permanently in others.
More than 285 million people live in the U.S. and Canada. (5% of the world's population).
Home to a diverse group of people.
Technology and Growth
Settlers on the Great Plains practiced dry farming.
Dry Farming- a way of saving water in the soil by plowing land so that it holds rainwater.
During these years there were many advancements in farming equipment.
Railroads increased the transport of food and goods.
The Industrial Revolution developed better ways of mass production.
United States Government
In 1787 the Constitution (a plan for government) was drafted.
Amendments- changes to the Constitution.
The first 10 amendments to the Constitution are called the Bill of Rights (guarantee the basic rights of citizens)
The National govt. has 3 branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.
Executive=pres., vice pres., executive depts.
European migration to the U.S. and Canada began in the late 1500's.
They came to the region in search of land to farm, valuable minerals, and political and religious freedom.
Most of the settlers came from Spain, France, and England.
cash crops- crops that are raised to be sold.
-Most plantation owners used to slaves to provide the labor required for production.
The U.S. averages 73 people per sq. mile.
Average yearly pop. growth is 1%.
Canada averages 7 people per sq. mile. Average yearly pop. growth is less than 1% per year.
The northeastern U.S. is the most densely populated.
Sunbelt-the southern U.S. because of the mild climate.
Canada's 2 major industrial provinces: Quebec and Ontario
The French came to N. America primarily for economic reasons, esp. in the fur trade.
-Most did not plan to settle, they wanted to make money and return to France.
Settlements served 2 purposes: military outposts and as missions (religious settlements to convert Native Americans to Christianity.
In 1763 France was forced to give up most of its empire in N.A. to the British. This causes problems:
British gov. extended its control over the colonies by passing laws that taxed the colonists and limited their freedom.
Led to growing opposition to monarchy.
Republic- a form of gov. in which people elect their own officials including head of state.
-As a result of the war, the U.S. was formed.
During the war, not all colonists wanted to sever ties with G. Britain. Some moved to Canada which had a large French population.
Canada split Quebec into Lower Canada and Upper Canada as a way to represent the French Canadians and the Loyalist settlers.
In 1867 the Dominion of Canada was established and the four provinces of Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united.
Industry and Expansion
The first water powered cotton mill was built in Rhode Island in 1793.
Industrialization- the setting up of manufacturing that uses machinery.
Cotton became the south's major cash crop.
The Louisiana Purchase- gave the U.S. control of the Mississippi River and access to the port of New Orleans.Also nearly doubled the size of the U.S.
The territories of the West were rich in natural resources (gold and silver).
Texas became an independent republic in 1836 and joined the U.S. in 1845.
As a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the U.S. got the present states of California, Utah, and Nevada and parts of Colorado, Wyoming, Arizona, and New Mexico.
in 1867 the U.S. bought Alaska from Russia. It proved to be valuable because of its natural resources (gold, oil, etc.)
The heads of the depts. are members of the President's cabinet.
Cabinet- group of special advisers.
Legislative= Congress (Senate and House of Representatives.
Judicial= Supreme Court and other courts.
The British North America Act of 1867 made Canada a self- governing nation with close ties to G. Britain.
The Constitution Act of 1982 gave Canada the right to make constitutional changes without British approval.
Executive part of Canadian govt. = governor general, prime minister, and the cabinet.
British monarch is the official head of state in Canada.
Canada's prime minister is the actual working head of of the govt.
U.S. made up of 50 states and several territories.
Canada is made up of 10 provinces and 2 territories (Yukon and Northwest). In 1999 a third (Nunavut) was added.
Section 3: Cultures and Lifestyles
multicultural- societies having more than one culture.
Religious freedom has always been valued in the U.S. and Canada. Most people in both countries are Christians.
Religious groups: Protestants, Roman Catholic, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism.
U.S.= 1/2 are Protestant
Canada= 1/2 Roman Catholic
Many Spanish speaking people live in the Southwest. Many French speaking people live in Louisiana.
bilingual- having two languages.
Canada is a bilingual nation (English and French)
New Mexico is a bilingual state (English and Spanish)
Abstract style- the artist tries to show his or her attitudes or emotions.
Art and architecture were greatly influenced by European styles.
Literature in the U.S. and Canada at first dealt mainly with history and religion and reflected European themes.
Jazz- blends African rhythms with the harmony of European music.
mobile- moving from place to place
The U.S. and Canada are among the richest countries in the world. Food is relatively inexpensive and housing varies to suit the needs of the individual.
Citizens can expect to live a long time.
Canada spends more money ensuring the health of its citizens than does the U.S.
The cost of insurance is increasing.
Each country has private and public schools. Both require 12 years to graduate.
literacy rate- how many residents can read and write.
U.S. has a 97% literacy rate
Canada has a 96% literacy rate
Sports and Recreation
Both countries enjoy sporting events.
The U.S. has Yellowstone National Park, which was established in 1872.
Canada has the Wood Buffalo Park which covers 17,296 miles.
Both countries have religious holidays and celebrations to pay tribute to an individual or patriotic holidays.