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Transcript of New France
History textbook- Canada Revisited 7
BY: ANURADHA 709
Filles du Roi
(900 - 1000 AD)
Samuel De Champlain
(1603 - 1635)
(1491 - 1557)
(1663 - 1673)
(1535 - 1536)
(1541 - 1542)
The Vikings were Norse seafarers , speaking the old Norse language , who from their homelands in Scandinavia who raided , traded , explored , and settled in wide areas of Europe , Asia , and the North Atlantic island , from the late 8th to the mid - 11th centuries . versatile ships allowed the Vikings to settle and travel as far east as Constantinople and the Volga River in Russia , as far west as Iceland , Greenland , and Newfoundland , and as far south as Nekor . This period of Viking expansion , known as the Viking Age , constitutes an important element of the medieval history of Scandinavia , Great Britain , Ireland , France , Sicily , Russia , and the rest of Europe .
Les Filles Du Roi , or the King's Daughters , were young French women who were sent across the Atlantic Ocean to become the bride of a man in New France . Beginning in the early 1600's up until 1663 , New France was a colony under control and management of merchants and commercial companies from French cities across the Atlantic . Their primary duties in the new colony was develop the land in New France in order to produce resources to send back to the mother country . He wanted the population of new France to grow and he hoped for his girls to get married and have kids . The goal were to put the the French colony's overwhelmingly male population of one woman to six men , and to encourage French soldiers to marry and settle in New France. In return they were given a dowry . A lot of the women were orphans , or poor . Many were as young as sixteen and some thirteen .
On April 20 , 1534 Cartier set sail under a commission from the king , hoping to discover a western passage to the wealthy markets of Asia . In the words of the commission , he was to "discover certain islands and lands where it is said that a great quantity of gold and other precious things are to be found" . It took him twenty days to sail across the ocean . Starting on May 10 of that year , he explored parts of Newfoundland , the areas now the Canadian Atlantic provinces and the Gulf of St . Lawrence . During one stop at Îles aux Oiseaux , his crew killed around 1000 birds , most of them great auks (now extinct) . Cartier's first two encounters with aboriginal peoples in Canada on the north side of Chaleur Bay , most likely the Mi'kmaq , were brief ; some trading occurred .
Jacques Cartier set sail for a second voyage on May 19 of the following year with three ships , 110 men , and his two Iroquoian captives . Jacques Cartier left his main ships in a harbour close to Stadacona , and used his smallest ship to continue on to Hochelaga (now Montreal) , arriving on October 2 , 1535 . After spending two days among the people of Hochelaga , Cartier returned to Stadacona on October 11 . It is not known exactly when he decided to spend the winter of 1535–1536 in Stadacona , and it was by then too late to return to France . From mid -November 1535 to mid - April 1536 , the French fleet lay frozen solid at the mouth of the St . Charles River , under the rock of Quebec . Ready to return to France in early May 1536 , Cartier decided to take Chief Donnacona to France , so that he might personally tell the tale of a country further north .
On May 23 , 1541 , Cartier departed Saint - Malo on his third voyage with five ships . This time , any thought of finding a passage to the Orient was forgotten . The goals were now to find the "Kingdom of Saguenay" and its riches , and to establish a permanent settlement along the St . Lawrence River . Returning to Charlesbourg -Royal , Cartier found the situation ominous . The Iroquoians no longer made friendly visits or peddled fish and game , but prowled about in a sinister manner . No records exist about the winter of 1541 – 1542 and the information must be gleaned from the few details provided by returning sailors . It seems the natives attacked and killed about 35 settlers before the Frenchmen could retreat behind their fortifications . Cartier left for France in early June 1542 , encountering Roberval and his ships along the Newfoundland coast .
Samuel de Champlain was born into a family of mariners , Champlain , while still a young man , began exploring North America in 1603 under the guidance of François Gravé Du Pont , From 1604 to 1607 Champlain participated in the exploration and settlement of the first permanent European settlement north of Florida , Port Royal , Acadia (1605) . Then , in 1608 , he established the French settlement that is now Quebec City . Champlain was the first European to explore and describe the Great Lakes , and published maps of his journeys and accounts of what he learned from the natives and the French living among the Natives .
Cabot's ship was named the Matthew, almost certainly after his wife Mattea . He was an Italian navigator and explorer whose 1497 discovery parts of North America under the commission of Henry VII (7) of England is commonly held to have been the first European encounter with the mainland of North America since the Norse Vikings visits to Vinland in the eleventh century.
Jesuit Priests came to New France as missionaries . They had two goals . One to settle in New France to spread the Roman Catholic religion to the native people and their second goal is to establish schools for boys .
Seigneur was the name formerly given in France to someone who had been granted a fief by the crown , with all its associated rights over person and property .
They were men who had won the king in France . The king rewarded them by granting a large area of land . The seigneur could keep a large section of land for his family , but had to get habitants to settle on for the rest .
Habitants in New France were largely defined by their relationship to a seigneur . They were hard workers and had a lot of responsibility . Cutting and clearing the land , grow crops , and raise animals . Seigneurs were primarily nobles or clergy members from France who were given large pieces of land that were referred to Seigneuries . The wealth of the land was primarily built through its development by the Habitants .
French soldiers came to New France to defend the colony , and also for money from the king .
The majority of the soldiers and commissioned officers arrived in 1663 . The regiments of New France had trips in and out of New France . They were called upon when war broke . Some soldiers stayed behind and helped populate the settlements of New France . The soldiers came with boats called galleons to New France .
The soldiers came to New France to protect others . While defending France , they were to kill any assaulting forces of the Iroquois confederacy . They were also to claim the new world under the flag of France and to push back the british contestants who also wanted the new world . King Louis the third encouraged the soldiers to stay and populate the settlements of New France .