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Chapter 16: Life at the Turn of the 20th Century

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kiera husbands

on 28 May 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 16: Life at the Turn of the 20th Century

Technology and City Life
Engineering started to grow during the 20th century, setting the pat for modern American life. The population for only 25 cities was 50,000 in 1870, but by 1890 that population had become true for 58 cities. People started to move to the city for good industrial jobs. However to keep up with the growing city population, the nation needed to advance technologically.
Skyscrapers
• Architects started to build higher building by using the invention of elevators and the creation of internal steel skeletons for buildings.
• Louis Sullivan was an architect that designed a ten story building called the Wainwright Building in St. Louis, during the years 1890-1891.
• Skyscrapers were viewed as one of the best developments in architecture, thanks to America.
• Daniel Burnham was an architect that designed a 285 foot tower and it was called the Flatiron Building.
• The Flatiron Building was created in 1902 in New York and it served as a symbol of a rich and optimistic society.
Electric Transit
• The creation of skyscrapers allowed cities to have more space and expand itself in an outward direction.
• As the cities grew the public needed a faster way to move from one area to another, thus people turned to electricity.
• The first American city to take these plans and electrify its urban transit was Richmond, Virginia in 1888.
• This form of transportation spread causing networks for electric streetcars to be spread all throughout the city.
• The electric streetcars were often also known as trolley cars.
• A major use of this new transportation was to help more people settle in the suburbs but still have a way to go to the city for a good job.
• On average 10,000 commuters a day were transported from the suburbs to the central business district.
• Various types of electric transit were put into place, such as elevated trains, subways, and streetcars.


Section 1
(Science and Urban Life)
In 1892, Homer Plessy took a seat in the “Whites Only” car of a train and refused to move. He was arrested, tried, and convicted in the District Court of New Orleans for breaking Louisiana’s segregation law. Plessy claimed that he had been denied equal protection under the law.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Section 3
(Segregation and Discrimination)
African Americans Fight Legal Discrimination

Section 4
(The Dawn of Mass Culture)
Section 2
(Expanding Public Education)
Expanding Public Education
The Growth of High Schools
• With more and more people becoming educated the demand for advanced technical and managerial skills increased and business leader pushed the idea that to keep workers loyal to capitalism you must “provide ladders upon which the aspiring can rise.”
• Therefore, by the 1900, more than half a million students attended high school where the curriculum broaden to include courses such as, science, civics, and social studies as well as vocational courses the prepared male graduates such as, industrial jobs on drafting, carpentry, and mechanics and for women office work.
Racial Discrimination
• With all this taking place, African Americans were mostly excluded from public secondary education.
• By the 1890 fewer and fewer black teenagers were attending high school, more than two-thirds of these students went to private schools, and by 1910 about 3 percent of African American attended high school but more still attended private schools with received no government financial support.
Education for Immigrants
• Unlike African Americans immigrants were highly encouraged to go to school. Most immigrants sent their children to school to receive America’s free public education and their children quickly became “Americanized.”
• Not only children of immigrants attend school but there were also adults to attend night school to better learn English and qualify their American citizenship and employers also provided immigrants with daytime programs that helped Americanize their workers.
• For example sociology department was established by Henry Ford in Michigan because “men of many nations must be taught American ways, the English language, and the right way to live.”

Section 2: Cont.
Expanding Higher Education:
Although the number of students attending high school increased by the turn of the century there was still only 2.3 percent of young people attended colleges and universities.
Changes in Universities:
• From the years 1880 and 1920 college enrollments had begun to quadruple and with the industrial development, the nation’s educational needs also changed. Therefore, to fit these needs universities and colleges offered modern languages, the physical sciences, and new discipline of psychology and sociology. There were professional schools in law and medicine.

Section 2: Cont.
Turn-of-the-Century Race Relations
Not only did African Americans face formal discrimination but they also dealt with informal rules and customs called racial etiquette that regulated the relationships between whites and blacks. For example, blacks and whites could never shake hands because it would imply equality.
Chapter 16: Life at the Turn of the 20th Century
By: Catherine De Freitas, Kathleen Vega-Conza, and Kiera Husbands
During the late 19th century some saw education as a key to greater security and social status while other saw it as the best opportunity to assimilate the millions of immigrants entering American society. However most believed that education was necessary for a stable and prosperous democratic nation.
Schools for Children
• Most states developed public schools after the civil war however there was still no formal schooling for school-age children. Most students only attended school for four years and little to none went to high school.
• However, in the years of 1865 and 1895 states passed laws that required children ages 8 to 14 to attend school for at least 12 to 16 weeks annually, there curriculum would focused on reading, writing, and arithmetic.
• By doing this, states promoted the need for school and children began attending school at a younger age such as kindergarten, which provided child care from employed mothers.

American Leisure
Higher Education for African Americans:
• Now that African Americans were free they began to purse a higher education. With help from the Freedmen’s Bureau and other groups blacks founded in Howard, Atlanta, and Fisk Universities by 1900 out of 9 million African Americans only 3,800 attended colleges or professional schools.
• One major African American educator was Booker T. Washington who was born a slave and later graduated from Virginia’s Hampton Institute. He believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society.
• He was also the head of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute that aimed to equip African Americans with teaching diplomas and useful skills in agricultural, domestic, or mechanical work.
• On the contrary, W.E.D. Du Bois was the first African American to receive a doctorate from Harvard in 1895. “The Negro race like all races is going to be saved by its exceptional men”
(Primary Source)
said Du Bois.
• He founded the Niagara Movement which insisted that blacks should seek liberal arts education so that African-Americans community would be well-educated leader. By the turn of the 20th century, millions of people gained an education that would help with the rapidly changing world.
With Africans now having the ability to practice their newly won political and social rights they faced many problems with whites and they eventually began to feel victim to laws that restricted their civil rights.

Voting Restrictions:
• All Southern states placed restrictions on African Americans voting rights. Officials passed requirements that ensured that blacks could not vote.
• The two most famous requirements were poll taxes, which were an annual tax that had to be paid in order to vote and grandfather clause which stated that even if a man failed the literacy test or could not afford to pay poll taxes he could still vote if his father or his grandfather had been able to vote before January
Jim Crows Laws:
• During the 1870s and 1880s the Supreme Court failed to overturn laws that undermined the rights of African Americans and Southern states passed racial segregation laws to separate whites and blacks in public and private areas these laws became known as the Jim Crow Laws.

Section 3: Cont.

Violence:
• African Americans and other who did not follow the racial etiquette could face severe punishment. Between the years 1882 and 1892 more than 1,400 African American were shot, hanged, or burned without a trial in the South.
• It was belief that Southern citizens felt that the lynching of Negroes was honestly the only way to deal with such class of crime
(Primary Source)
.
Discrimination in the North:

• Most African Americans lived segregated in the South and were focused into segregated neighborhoods in the North. They also faced discrimination in workplaces.

Section 3: Cont.
Discrimination in the West
Western communities were home to people of many backgrounds working and living side by side. With Asians, Natives, and Mexicans living in Western communities the racial tension was made life difficult.
Mexican Workers:
• In the late 1800s, the railroads hired more and more Mexicans than any other ethnics groups. Mexicans were accustomed to the region’s hot, dry, climate but they were paid way less than any other ethnic groups.
• When the 1902 National Reclamation Act gave government assistance for irrigation projects, the southwest desert areas bloomed and Mexicans were major work force for the agricultural industries.
• Mexicans as well as African Americans in the Southwest were forced into debt peonage which was a system that bound labors into slavery in order to work off debt to the employer.
• It wasn’t until 1911 that the Supreme Court ruled the peonage a violation due to the Thirteenth Amendment.
Excluding the Chinese:
• By 1880, more than 100,000 Chinese immigrants now lived in the United States. Whites feared job competitions with the Chinese immigrants and pushed them into Chinese segregated school and neighborhoods.
• Racial discrimination posed a terrible legal and economic problem for the no-whites throughout the United States.

Coney Island was one of the most famous urban amusement centers in the late 19th century. Thousands and thousands of people would pile in after work, on Sundays, and on holidays.
New forms of entertainment became available to many Americans as the 19th century came to an end. Amusement parks, bicycling, new forms of theater, and spectator sports became a distraction for people from their dull, industrial and everyday work.
Amusement Parks
• Open green space was set aside for outdoor enjoyment by big cities like New York City and Chicago. Other cities also built playing fields and small playgrounds for the enjoyment of their citizens.
• Amusement parks were also built on the outskirts of cities and people would hold picnics and enjoy rides here.
• The roller coaster attracted many people to Coney Island in 1884, just like the first Ferris wheel attracted many to the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893.
Bicycling and Tennis
• Bicycles became another source of entertainment. Bicycling became a new sport that only males could participate in, since it was thought of as dangerous to others.
• In 1885, the “safety bicycle” was created and attracted women to enjoy this new sport. Bicycling soon became an activity that gave women a feeling of freedom and self-reliance.
Section 4: Cont
.
Bicycling and Tennis
• Tennis became another entertaining sport for Americans, originating in North Whales in 1873. Tennis was taken in by Americans only a year later, when the U.S held its first tennis match.
• Many became hungry or thirsty after playing tennis or bicycling. This called for the creation of new snacks with recognizable names.
• Some snacks included a Hershey chocolate bar, first sold in 1900 and a Coca-Cola. This famous drink first came from an Atlanta pharmacist who developed the drink as a cure for headaches in 1886. The ingredients of this drink included extracts from Peruvian coca leaves and African cola nuts.
Spectator Sports
• Along with participation in new sports like boxing and baseball, many Americans became enthusiastic fans. By the 20th century, these sports became a profitable business, despite starting as informal popular activities.
Baseball
• Baseball was transformed into a professional sport with the addition of new rules placed by an amateur player named Alexander J. Cartwright. In 1845, he organized a club in NYC and set down regulations that used features of an English sport called rounders.
• After only 5 years, 50 baseball clubs came about in the U.S, including 12 in NY alone. By the 1890s, baseball had a published game schedule, official rules, and a standard-sized diamond.
• A professional team named the Cincinnati Red Stockings toured the country in 1869, followed by others clubs. This led to the formation of the National League in 1876 and the American League in 1900.
• African Americans were excluded from both leagues because of discrimination, but they formed their own clubs and leagues- the Negro National League and the Negro American League.

Legal Reasoning
Plessy claimed that segregation violated his right to equal protection under the law and also claimed that being “of mixed descent” he was entitled to “every recognition, right, privilege, and immunity secured to the citizens of the United States of the white race.”
In truth, segregation laws did not perpetrate an unequal and inferior status for African Americans. Justice John Marshall Harlan understood this fact and wrote “In respect of civil rights, all citizens are equal before the law.” “The seeds of race hate… be planted under the sanction of law.” “The thin disguise of ‘equal’ accommodations… will not mislead any one, nor atone for the wrong this day done.”

Historical Impact
During the first half of the 20th century, the NAACP led the legal first fight to overturn Plessy. It wasn’t until the 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education that the Supreme Court overturned Plessy and they stated that separate-but-equal doctrine was unconstitutional in public education however they did not completely overturn the doctrine. In later years, Rosa Parks was also convicted for the violating the Montgomery, Alabama law of segregation but the Supreme Court for the conviction unconstitutional.
Why It Mattered
Plessy was one of several Supreme Court cases that brought African Americans to protect their rights against segregation. The court normally ignored the Fourteenth Amendment and upheld state laws that denied blacks their rights. As a result, city and states government across the South and in some other states maintained their segregation laws for more than half the 20th century. These laws limited African Americans’ access to most public facilities, including restaurants, schools, and hospitals, Signs reading “Whites Only” and “Blacks Only” served and a reminder that societies was separate but not equal.
Comparison to Present Day Life
Entertainment has been a big part of people’s lives in the past as well as today. Everyone wants to find a way to amuse themselves and have fun, so they can forget about their jobs and lives for just a moment. With the development of hard industrial work came a call for entertainment. Americans wanted to enjoy themselves and take a break, just like we do now. Entertainment was and is still an escape. They developed amusement parks, new sports, and forms of theater for personal leisure and pleasure. Presently, we still use these forms of entertainment. Amusement parks and sports are two major types that we still take pleasure in today. Although many new forms of entertainment have developed, we still use some of the types people used during this time. This shows that no matter the century or time, people still desire a time of fun.

The Spread Of Mass Culture
Art galleries, libraries, books, and museums brought new cultural opportunities to many Americans. New media technology resulted in the release of hundreds of motion pictures and mass-production printing techniques brought thousands of books, magazines, and newspapers.

Mass Circulation Newspapers
• A Hungarian immigrant by the name of Joseph Pulitzer who had previously bought the New York World in 1883, developed popular changes in newspapers. Some included a large Sunday edition, comics, sports coverage, and women’s news.
• William Randolph Hearst had previously owned the San Francisco Examiner and purchased the New York Morning Journal. He filled the Journal with exaggerated tales of cruelty, personal scandals, hypnotism, and even an imaginary conquest of Mars.
• These two men had a competition going on, which caused more and more people to read their papers. By 1898, the circulation of each paper reached more than one million copies a day.
Promoting Fine Arts
• By the start of the 20th century, many people began to embrace art more. There were two famous art schools known as the Eakins school, who attempted to portray life as it is really lived, and the Ashcan school, who painted urban life and working people with realism.
• Along with this came the development of public libraries, sometimes called, “the poor man’s university.” Thousands of free circulating libraries were created by 1900.
• Motion films were also developed during this time. Many actors and actresses were born and starred in many films. One of these actresses was Lillian Gish, who many critics believed had invented the art of acting on film
( Primary Source)
.
Popular Fiction
• People had different opinions on the role of literature in society. Some preferred to read crime tales and Western adventures, while others preferred light fiction.
• Light fiction was books sold for ten cents and they became known as “dime novels.” These dime novels would usually contain adventure tales of heroes in the West.


Popular Fiction
• Many successful writers came about during this time, including Samuel Langhorne Clemens, better known as Mark Twain. He was a humorist and novelist who created many classics of American literature like The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.
• Although art galleries and libraries were supposed to widen people’s perspectives, many weren’t able to. Some didn’t have any interest, while others like African Americans were excluded from visiting museums and other white-controlled cultural institutions. .

New Ways to Sell Goods
Aside from new forms of entertainments, people started to change how they shopped. Shopping centers, which were the development of department and chain stores, and modern advertising, were also introduced during this time.
Urban Shopping
• Cities began to grow and grow and this brought the creating of a shopping center. The first one opened in 1890 in Cleveland, Ohio. It was a very sophisticated environment with four floors of attention-grabbing products and enjoyable music.
• Retail shopping districts were strategically placed where transportation would bring shoppers of other areas. To secure these districts, merchants started the modern department store.


The Department Store
• Marshall Field of Chicago brought the concept of a department to America. During the time he worked as a clerk, he found that sales could be increased by paying attention to women shoppers,
• Later in 1865, he opened his stores with several floors containing specialized departments. He also initiated the bargain basement, where he would sell goods that were less expensive, but still reliable.
The Chain Store
• Chain stores were retail stores offering the same merchandise as department stores, but they just sold for less by buying in quantity and limiting personal service.
• A man named F.W. Woolworth found that offering low prices would make people buy more things because it was cheap. His chain consisted of 596 stores and sold more than a million dollars in just one week.
Advertising
• Advertising also brought a change to who consumed what. In 1865, companies only spent $10 million a year on advertising, but by 1900, that number had raised to $95 million.
• Medicines were the biggest products advertised, followed by soaps and baking powders. There were many forms of advertising, like newspapers and magazines but advertisements could also be found on barns, billboards, and even rocks.
Catalogs and RFD
• Sears Roebuck and Montgomery Ward were who brought retail merchandise to smaller towns. Ward launched his catalog in 1872 and it grew each year that passed, attracting many.
• Sears started his company in 1886 and it was very successful. Hundreds of people made orders every day and more people started to shop by mail.
• The United States Post office also encouraged and promoted mail-order business. In 1896, they introduced a rural free delivery (RFD), which was a system that brought packages directly to people’s homes.
Section 4: Cont
.
Section 4: Cont
.
Section 4: Cont
.
Engineering and Urban Planning
• To help connect neighboring cities several bridges were made using steel cable suspensions.
• John Augustus Roebling created the Brooklyn Bridge and opened it in 1883 in Manhattan, New York City.
• Bridges weren’t just built for cars to pass over; it was also built so people could walk on it and enjoy the fresh air.
• This idea of open space created the spark for the concept of urban planning.
• Many architects wanted to design recreational areas for the public so they could get away from the crowded city life and simply find peace in the environment.
• Frederick Law Olmsted was a landscape architect that was one of the first architects to begin the movement for planning out urban parks.
• In 1857 along with Calvert Vaux, he drew up a plan for “Greensward”, which was chosen to become Central Park in New York City.
• Olmsted designed various recreational areas, such as a landscape plan for Washington D.C., a landscape plan for St. Louis, and the first designs for the “Emerald Necklace” in Boston.
City Planning
• Cities started to grow exceptionally fast, like Chicago and its population growth from 30,000 in 1850 to 300,000 in 1870.
• Daniel Burnham helped deal with this issue by redesigning the city so there would be more space.
• One of the ways he redesigned the city was by turning a swampy area near Lake Michigan to a nice area for Chicago’s 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition called White City.
• About 21 million people went to Chicago to visit and witness its new transformation.
• Burnham’s design for the White City was seen as inspired by other urban planners; they believed that it was the future for city plans.

Section 1: Cont.
Section 1: Cont.
New Technologies
The nation had started to strive greatly in its new inventions to help band the states together. People were able to get in touch with one another and spread information all throughout the nation thanks to the new technological advances, such as railroad networks, new developments for printing, aviation, and photography.
A Revolution in Printing
• The number of texts increased in 1890 due to the increase in the literacy rate, which was at 90% in the U.S.
• Printers had to advance technologically to keep up with the demand for pieces of literature, such as books, magazines, and newspapers.
• The paper was made quickly and at high quantities in Americans mills from wood pulp.
• This paper was a major development in printing because the paper was durable.
• A new type of printer was being used and it was called the web-perfecting press and it ran on electricity.
• The web-perfecting press printed on both sides of the paper, cut it, folded it, and even counted the number of pages.
• This new printer model allowed production to move quickly which resulted in low costs for these texts.
Airplanes
• Orville and Wilbur Wright were brothers who were originally bicycle manufacturers from Dayton, Ohio but then started experimenting with new engines to create the first plane.
• To build the entire airplane they had to start out with the smaller part like gliders, a four cylinder internal combustion engine, and a propeller.
• Their model was known as a biplane with wingspans equal to 40’4”.
• They were the first to fly the plane and did so on December 17, 1903 at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
• It rose to 120 feet in 12 seconds but within 2 years the brothers were able to get it up to 24 miles.
• In 1920 the U.S. government formed the first transcontinental airmail service.


Section 1: Cont.
Photography Explosion
• Photography was a serious profession however it was very difficult for the photographer because the equipment was quite heavy, it took a very long time to actually take a photo, and the photos had to be developed immediately.
• This also the main reason why photographers were unable to take a picture of objects or people in motion.
• George Eastman was an inventor that created the Kodak camera in 1888.
• His new invention was sold for $25 and this purchase included a film that allowed people to take 100 pictures.
• Afterwards for $10 Eastman’s workers would develop the photos and reload the cameras, but no matter what the cameras were always returned to Eastman’s factory in Rochester, New York.
• This invention helped create the field of photojournalism and expand/advance the careers of reporters by allowing them to capture action pictures.
• Eastman’s camera was used by Mr. Daniels to take the first picture at Kitty Hawk of the Wright brothers’ plane taking off.
(Primary Source)

Works Cited
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Danzer, Gerald A. The Americans. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell, 2003. Print.
"Flatiron Building." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 22 May 2015. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flatiron_Building>.
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