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Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales- Second Edition
Transcript of Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales- Second Edition
Description of PKBS-2
PKBS-2 is a behavior rating scale designed specifically for evaluating social skills and problem behaviors of children ages 3 to 6 years.
76 items on two scales:
-Social Skills Scale (34 Items): which describes positive social skills that are typical of well-adjusted children within this age range
-Problem Behavior Scale (42 Items): which describe various problem behaviors commonly seen among this age group.
-Comes in 2 different languages, English and Spanish
Development of PKBS-2
Alex Lewis, Raul Palacios
Description of PKBS-2
Development of PKBS-2
~ Kenneth W. Merrell
The social skills scale is based on two specific research studies:
1. Two major types of social adjustment: Peer-related and Adult-related (Walker, McConnell & Clarke, 1985)
2. Five common dimensions of social skills: peer relations, self-management, academic, compliance and assertion (Caldarella & Merrell, 1997)
1. Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors (Cicchetti & Toth, 1991)
1. Interpreting the standard scores
2. Interpreting the risk levels
3. Qualitative inspection of individual items
- Mean of 100 and SD of 15
- High Risk = 2 SD in the least desirable direction
- Moderate Risk = Between 1 and 2 SD in the least desirable direction
- Inspection for commonalities between identified items to determine trends or problem behaviors
Internal Consistency Reliability ranges from .84 - .97, which indicates an exceptionally strong level of internal consistency
Test-retest Reliability ranges from .62 - .87.
Inter-rater Reliability ranges from .36 - .63, which indicates a moderate to moderately strong level of reliability across raters within the same setting, but low to moderate reliability across different raters in different settings.
These results are consistent with research on cross-informant assessment of child behavior.
Behavioral rating scales require less time and less training
The PKSB-2 is relatively short and easy to use
Provides data on low-frequency behaviors
Can be used on an FBA as a means to gathering data and generating hypotheses regarding possible functions
Helpful in linking assessment to intervention
Many handbooks, manuals, etc have been developed to assist PKSB-2 users in developing and implementing interventions.
Can be useful to identify specific skills or behaviors for goals in an IEP.
Offered in both English and Spanish
Bias of response and error variance
Not incorporated with the DSM-IV or V
Uses layman's terms and therefore not as relevant or useful in clinical settings
Caldarella, P., & Merrell, K. W. (1997) Common dimensions of social skills of children and adolescents: A taxonomy
of positive behaviors. School Psychology review, 26, 265-279.
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (Eds.). (1991) Internalizing and externalizing expressions of dysfunction. Hillsdale, NJ:
Merrell, K. W. (2002). Preschool and kindergarten behavior scales: examiner's manual. (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-
Walker, H. M., McConnell, S. R., & Clarke, J. Y. (1985) Social skills training in school settings: A model for social
integration of handicapped children into less restrictive settings. In R. McMahon & R.D. Peters (Eds.), Childhood disorders: Behavioral- developmental approaches. (pp. 140 - 168). New York: Bruner-Mazel.
The PKBS-2 Summary/Response Form was designed to be completed by a variety of people including parents, teachers, caregivers and raters who have knowledge of the child.
-Administration Time: Between 8 to 12 minutes
-Should be completed as fully as possible.
-Social Skills Scales (3 Subscales)
Social Cooperation (SC), Social Interaction (INT), Social Independence (IND)
-Problem Behavior Scales (2 subscales)
Externalizing Problems (EP)Internalizing Problems (IP).
-After the form has been completed, the form is then turned into the examiner for scoring.
- Normative sample: 3,313 children (3 to 6 years)
- Represents 28 communities in the United States, spread out among four U.S. geographic regions (West, Midwest, Northeast, and South).
- Gender: 1,716 children (51.7%) identified as male, 1,542 children (46.7%) identified as female, and 55 children (1.6%) were unidentified.
- Racial/ethnic groups represented in the PKBS-2 include White, Black, Hispanic, Asian and Pacific Islander, American Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut.
* This data combines the normative sample of both the original PKBS 1st edition and 2nd edition.
Content Validity (measures the careful examination of a test to determine how relevant its contents are to the constructs which it is intended to measure) had a variation of correlation coefficients between .32 to .70 within the Social Skills Scale items and .44 to .75 within the Problem Behavior Scale items.
Convergent and Discriminant Construct Validity (analyses the relationship of test scores to variables which are similarly measured by other assessments) showed:
-PKBS-2 and Social Skills Rating System (SSRS)
.32 to .76 (Social Skills) & .25 to .83 (Problem Behavior)
- PKBS-2 and Maston Evaluation of Social Skills and Youngsters (MESSY)
.62 to .85 (Social Skills) & .22 to .72 (Problem Behavior)