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Transcript of Health Literacy
As a result health teaching can become more effective. Facilitating Change Agho, A.O., Deason, L.M., & Rivers, P.A., 2011 Many communities have other priorities instead of improving health literacy.
This relates to the little amount of work towards adjusting the low levels of health literacy Impoverished Communities Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2011 The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, Title V, defines health literacy as the degree to which an individual has the capacity to obtain, communicate, process, and understand basic health information and services to make appropriate health decisions. This definition is almost identical to Healthy People. The only difference is the addition of "communicate" to the legislative definition. What is it? Christina Steinmetz
Ashley Zingerling Health -Literacy skills are a stronger predictor of an individual’s health status than:
-racial/ethnic group Boog, 2012 National Patient Safety Foundation, 2011 Effects and Statistics -The health of 90 million people in the U.S. may be at risk because of the difficulty some patients experience in understanding and acting upon health information. Health Literacy Vernon et. all, 2007 Pharmacy and Medications Agho, A.O., Deason, L.M., & Rivers, P.A., 2011
Grocery shopping and nutritional information Nutrition and Medication National Patient Safety Foundation, 2011 Among Racial/Ethnic Minorities and Elderly Limited health literacy increases the disparity in health care access among exceptionally vulnerable populations (such as racial/ethnic minorities and the elderly). -More than 66% of US adults age 60 and over have either inadequate or marginal literacy skills.
-According to the Center for Health Care Strategies, a disproportionate number of minorities and immigrants are estimated to have literacy problems:
50% of Hispanics
40% of Blacks
33% of Asians Health Literacy SWSA, 2011 National Patient Safety Foundation, 2011 Incidence and Prevalence One out of five American adults reads at the 5th grade level or below, and the average American reads at the 8th to 9th grade level, yet most health care materials are written above the 10th grade level. Health Literacy Impact of Health Literacy on Health Outcomes Social Impact Personal Impact Community Impact Socioeconomic implication inferiority complex
Further decline perpetuated by continuation/manifestation of caregiver bias
Risk for communicable disease.
Both dependent and care giver deficit.
Medication error, non-compliance. Group “social networks”: gossip, rumors, hearsay, backbiting…
Family role strain
Both Dependent and Dependent-Caregiver deficit Healthy People 2020 Objectives: Education and Community Based Programs
Developmental Health Communication and Health Information Technology
*Social Determinants of Health Health information unlikely to be retained.
Chronic conditions and ineffective management. Skip important preventive measures.
Health literacy includes numeracy skills.
Lack knowledge of health topics.
Negative psychological effects. Agency for health care research and quality, 2011 Health literacy affects all communities and is not biased by race, gender, and socioeconomic status.
A community with lower levels of health literacy have a decreased quality of life. Ineffective if information is not at proper learning level for its community.
Teaching that is useful will not be utilized Health Promotion Bryant, A. D., 2011 Economic Impact The cost of low health literacy to the U.S. economy is approximately between $103 billion to $238 billion each year.
This accounts for 7% to 17% of all personal healthcare expenses. The U.S. Census Bureau estimates that the savings resulting from improved health literacy would make enough funds to insure the more than 47 million people who lacked health coverage in the U.S. in 2006.
It is estimated that inpatient hospital costs increase by nearly $1000 dollars for patients with lower health literacy Vernon et. all, 2007 It has been found that individuals with lower health literacy were less likely to use preventative care.
Individuals with poor health literacy were more likely to be hospitalized and experience poorer disease outcomes.
50% higher risk for hospitalization Outcomes of Poor Health Literacy NPSF, 2011 Evidence Based Practice A study conducted in Fort Worth, TX screened the health literacy of parents.
Parents and caregivers were screened for their level of health literacy. Additional education about caring for the children was given to those with low health literacy.
The study found that the program reduced healthcare costs and emergency room visits for the parents who participated.
“The program generated an average savings of $3,545 per patient” (American Health Consultants, 2011). A study was conducted at 55 Head Start agencies across the United States between 2003 and 2006.
The agencies trained low-income parents of young children using a low-literacy health book on how to respond to childhood illnesses.
After participation in the program:The average number of ER visits decreased by 58%The average number of doctor visits decreased by 41%.The number of school days missed per year decreased 29%. (Herman & Jackson, 2010,p. 906). Impact of training on utilization of health care services over time.
“What was the first source of help for common childhood illnesses in the past three months?”
Multiple prescribed medications available in different forms
Unable to read thermometer
Unable to read labels or write instructions when translated in Hmong Background leading to conflict: Fadiman, 1997 Seizures continued
Healthcare providers identified this as noncompliance Health Outcomes Incorrect Medication Administration Procedures Background Leading to Conflict Procedures to identify where the Pseudomonas aeruginosa originated was needed These procedures, along with others were completed without the consenters having knowledge of what was actually being done. Health Outcomes Fadiman, 1997 Follow Up Care First ER visit Lee’s could not describe symptoms
Resident diagnosed and prescribed antibiotics based on presenting symptoms and chest x-ray.
Discharge instructions were unclear to parents
Fadiman, 1997 Background Continuous admission and misdiagnosis for the same thing due to parties unable to communicate effectively.
Fadiman, 1997 Health Outcomes Nursing Interventions Literacy Background leading to conflict: Background Leading to Conflict: Start teaching health content at an early age
Include in curriculum
Simplify health brochures and literature given to patients
When information is given to patients require the following:
Verbal explanation of information received
Ability to correctly answer questions pertaining to information given
Provide not written materials
Video Photo Instructions What is easier? This? Or this? Allergy & Asthma Network, 2009 Video Instructions Can use pictures, writing, and sound together to increase patient understanding. "Good communication is an important part of the healing process. When a doctor and patient
they are more likely to achieve better health outcomes. As a patient, this means
if explanations or instructions are unclear,
even if the doctor or nurse doesn’t ask, and letting the doctor know if you have concerns about a particular treatment or change in your daily life." WORK AS A TEAM ASKING QUESTIONS BRINGING UP PROBLEMS -National Institutes on Health, 2012 WORK AS A EAM
ASKING Q ES IONS
B INGING UP PROBLEM T R U T S TRUST