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Lawbreaking Committed Against Children & Youth

Children and Youth: Frameworks of Policy and Practice 6002CRIM

Lindsey Amery

on 16 April 2013

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Transcript of Lawbreaking Committed Against Children & Youth

6002CRIM: Children and Youth: Frameworks of Policy and Practice

Lindsey Amery Lawbreaking Committed Against Children & Youth

Assess the various policy & practice responses to lawbreaking against children & youth... Victoria Climbie Summary Policy Great Aunt - now legal guardian: Marie-Therese Kouao
Carl John Manning - Great-Aunt's partner. Policy Policy Policy Child Exploitation Jessica's mum was no longer around.
Jessica's dad started drinking.
Sister truanting from school.
Got involved with a group of friends outside of school.
Friends were drinking and involved with drugs - Jessica: "If they were doing it, I thought it would be okay. Baby P A policy is a proposed or adopted course/principle of action. References Ball, S. J. (2006). Education Policy and Social Class. Oxon: United Kingdom.
Barnardo's (2012) Turning Lives Around: Jessica's Story. http://www.barnardos.org.uk/what_we_do/campaigns/advertising_campaigns/previous_advertising_campaigns/turn_around/jessica.htm.
Bell, M. (2011). Promoting Children's Rights in Social Work and Social Care: A Guide to Participatory Practice. United Kingdom: London.
Bridgeman, J. (2007). Parental Responsibility, Young Children and Healthcare Law. United States of America: New York.
Children Act 1989 & Children Act 2004. Children Services, Regulations 2005. http://www.careandthelaw.org.uk/eng/b_section2.
Dale, P. et al. (2005). Child Protection Assessment Following Serious Injuries to Infants. United Kingdom: Wiley & Sons.
Davies, A. (2011). Workplace Law Handbook 2011: Employment Law & Human Resources. United Kingdom: Cambridge.
Department for Education (2012). United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. http://www.education.gov.uk/childrenandyoungpeople/healthandwellbeing/b0074766/uncrc.
Erooga, M. (2012). Creating Safer Organisations, Practical Steps to Prevent the Abuse of Children by Those Working With Them. United Kingdom: West Sussex.
Fitzgerald, D. and Kay, J. (2008). Working Together in Children's Services. United States of America: New York. Children Act 1989.
Children and Young Persons Act 1993.
Crime and Disorder Act 1998.
Education Act 2002.
Keeping Children Safe (DfES 2003).
Every Child Matters (DfES 2003).
Children Act 2004.
Domestic Violence, Crime and Victims Act 2004.
Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006.
Forced Marriage Act (Civil Protection) 2007.
Children and Young Persons Act 2008.
Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008.
The Munro Review of Child Protection: Final Report (Munro, May 2011).
Education Act 2011. Children Act 1989 "An act to reform the law relating to children; to provide for local authority (LA) services for children in need and others; to amend the law with respect to children's homes, community homes, voluntary homes & voluntary organisations; to make provision with respect to fostering, child minding and day care for young children and adoption; and for connected purposes." (Children Act 1989 Section 41). Welfare of the child is paramount consideration of the court. (Section 1).
LA has a duty to investigate if it has reasonable cause to suspect a child is suffering or likely to suffer significant harm. (Section 47).
LA has a duty to provide services for children in need, their families and others. (Section 17). Born: 02/11/1991
Died: 25/02/2000 Abuse! Burnt with cigarettes.
Tied up for periods of longer than 24 hours.
Hit with bike chains, hammers and wires. Died! From kidney, heart and lung failure due to hypothermia caused by malnourishment and living in damp conditions with her movement constrained. Post-Mortem! 128 injuries to her body. Policy United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) Policy & UNCRC Policy & UNCRC Policy & UNCRC Case Study - Jessica Age: 15 Exploitation began... Pressure
Money from father ran out and Jessica was hooked on drugs.
New male friend who "fancied" Jessica introduced by "friends".
Jessica slept with the new male friend,
She was hooked on drugs and "the need and want became more and more." Barnardo's
Turning Lives Around: Jessica's Story Born: 01/03/2006
Died: 03/08/2007 Peter Connelly "Baby P" was an 18 month child who died after suffering more than 50 injuries in an 8 month period.
"Baby P" was on the child protection register.
"Baby P" was repeatedly seen by Haringey Children's Services and NHS professionals.
"Baby P" died of a skull fracture and various other injuries including; a broken back, fractured ribs, missing finger nails and bruises. Every Child Matters (DfES 2003) Be healthy.
Stay safe.
Enjoy and achieve.
Make a positive contribution.
Achieve economic well-being. Safe Guarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006 Unsuitable persons should be barred from working with children (or vulnerable adults).
Employers should have a straightforward means of checking that a person is not barred from working with children (or vulnerable adults).
Suitability checks should not be one-offs: they should be an element of ongoing assessment of suitability to catch those who commit wrongs following a suitability check. Holly Marie Wells
Born: 04/10/1991
Died: 04/08/2002
Jessica Aimee Chapman
Born: 01/09/1991
Died: 04/08/2002 Special protection measures and assistance.
Access to services such as education and healthcare.
Develop their personalities, abilities and talents to the fullest potential.
Grow up in an environment of happiness, love and understanding.
Be informed about and participate in achieving their rights in an accessible and active manner. Signed: 19/04/1990
Ratified: 16/12/1991
Came in to force: 15/01/1992 UK & UNCRC References Great Britain (2006). Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006. London: HMSO.
HM Government (1989). Children Act 1989. London: HMSO. Accessed from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1989/41.
HM Government (2003). Every Child Matters (2003). https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/CM5860.pdf.
House of Commons, Education and Skills Committee (2005). Every Child Matters. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200405/cmselect/cmeduski/40/40.pdf.
House of Commons (2004). The Bichard Inquiry Report 2004. Accessed from http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/6394/1/report.pdf
Independent Safe Guarding Authority (2006). The Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006. http://www.newham.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/7A5867BE-FEBE-47CF-9B03-1BED768F5324/0/FactSheet1ISABarringScheme.pdf.
Kehily, M. J. (2004). Introduction to Childhood Studies. United Kingdom: Maidenhead.
Laming, L. (2003). The Victoria Climbie Inquiry. http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/documents/digitalasset/dh_110711.pdf
Laming, L. (2009). Progress Report 2009. http://www.safeguardingchildrenea.co.uk/lord_laming_report_summary Bichard Inquiry Report (2004) "Those who want to work with children and adults should be registered!" RIGHTS FOR ALL CHILDREN! Victoria Climbie, Jessica and Baby P Views of the children not listened to.
Children are never seen alone/interacted with alone. Badman (2004) quotes “participation is the key of the arch that is the UNCRC. Without the active participation of children and young people in the promotion of their rights to a good childhood, none will be achieved effectively." Victoria Climbie, Jessica and Baby P Knowing when to intervene - creates tension.
Different acts have different impacts on keeping children safe. Results Multiple agencies failing due to pressure to adhere to new policy - keep children with families wherever possible. References NSPCC (2012a) Factsheet: An Introduction to Child Protection Legislation in the UK. Accessed from: http://www.nspcc.org.uk/inform/research/questions/child_protection_legislation_in_the_uk_pdf_wdf48953.pdf
Rochdale Borough Safeguarding Children Board (2012) Review of Multi-agency Responses to the Sexual Exploitation of Children Accessed from : http://www.rbscb.org/CSEReport.pdf.
Simon, C. A. and Ward, S. (2010). Does Every Child Matter: Understanding New Labour's Social Reforms. United States of American: New York.
Staples New, R. and Cochran, M. (2007). Early Childhood Education. United States of America.
UNICEF (2012). UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. http://www.unicef.org.uk/Documents/Publication-pdfs/betterlifeleaflet2012_press.pdf.
Winter, K. (2011). The UNCRC and Social Workers 'Relationships with Young Children. Child Abuse Review, 20, 395-406. Victoria Climbie, Jessica and Baby P In developed countries, health is becoming more determined by social, environmental and economic factors rather than biological - seen within sexual exploitation.
Groups of children not single children are seeing to be affected.
Some professionals are not skilled enough to deal with cases.
Due to previous failings, younger children are looked at.
"Older" children are viewed as making their "own choices." Winter (2011) Need to be adhered to, to help form meaningful relationships between social workers and children. Protection, Provision, Prevention and Participation There is no single piece of legislation that covers child protection in the UK, but rather a great number of laws and guidance that are continually being amended, updated and revoked.

New policies need to implement procedures to protect "modern day" complex lives of children affected by social, environmental and economic factors.
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