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How does sports medicine address the demands of specific athletes?

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Nick Bonner

on 30 June 2011

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Transcript of How does sports medicine address the demands of specific athletes?

Adult and aged Athletes Children and young athletes Female Athletes medical conditions Overuse injuries thermoregulation Appropriateness of resistance training eating disorders iron deficiency bone density pregnancy heart conditions fractures/ bone density flexibility/ joint mobility Bone density is the term used to describe the thickness and the strength of the bones. Lower bone density is evident as women go through menopause their bones become less dense due to lower calcium intake and/or lower oestrogen levels. The significance of the drop during menopause can be reduced through high calcium intake, as well as resistance training during adulthood. Insufficient calcium intake as a child can lead to smaller bones and calcium levels as an adult increase the chances of injury as an adult female. Due to the lower bone density there is a higher chance of fractures/stress fractures. Therefore there is sometimes a tendency for female athletes with low bone density to be cautious and avoid any sports and activities that will place them at risk of injury like repetitive activities and contact sports. Children are more prone to dehydration and extreme temperatures for 3 reasons:
- smaller limbs in proportion to torso size, more surface area in the torso to lose the small amount of fluid in their bodies
-less developed sweat glands, meaning a decreased ability to cool the body
-less muscular development, less able to generate heat from muscular activity

To minimise the chances of dehydration children should not exercise for long periods of time (>30 min) in extreme temperatures, drink small amounts of water/fluids frequently so that there is no major fluctuations in fluid levels in the body and also wear suitable clothing for the activity. Asthma Epilepsy Diabetes Asthma is a narrowing of the airways that makes breathing difficult. Asthma is especially impeding on a childs exercise when they suffer 'exercise-induced asthma' (as shown in video). Coaches need to be aware of procedures that need to be followed for an asthma sufferer in the situation of the child having an asthma attack and to prevent that situation arising. Coaches should be especially cautious in cold, dry conditions and high intensity and extended activities. The following needs to be considered and put into place for a coach training an asthmatic:
- Adequate warm up
- Ask if there is any recent history of an asthma attack
- Provide rest periods
- Allow use of preventative medication(ventalin) and ensure it is near them at all times.
- Know the childs limits
- Know the childs management techniques if an asthma attack occurs Epilepsy is a disorder in which the electrical rhythms in the CNS are disturbed causing seizures. Seizures are also known as 'fits', are when the person starts to have uncontrollable muscle contractions. Both the athlete and the coach need to know the limits of the child to prevent seizures from occuring. If a seizure occurs:
- allow the seizure to occur without restraint.
- make sure there are no dangers, as they can injure both the patient or the first aider
- ensure that the athlete is given appropriate rest after the seizure has finished as the patient will have lost alot of energy during the seizure.
- seek medical attention if the episode is longer than 10 minutes

To ensure that minimal damage occurs there needs to be continuous supervision of the epileptic. Epilepsy is treated through the use of medication that aims to decrease the amount of epileptic episodes for that patient. Diabetes is a malfunction in the pancreas of a person whereby the body does not produce enough insulin to control blood sugar levels. This causes fluctuations in their blood sugar levels that can cause problems. Too intense exercise is not recommendable for a diabetes sufferer as it can cause hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar), leading to nausea and unconciousness. As with the other illnesses the athlete and the coach need to know the limits of the athlete but the athlete also needs to monitor their blood sugar levels and if their is a fluctuation take suitable precautions such as eating sugary foods. In the case of a diabetic collapsing during an exercise regime, glucose should be given to the patient immediately and the first aider should seek further medical attention while it is ensured that the patient is not panicking and is kept calm. Due to the images that are portrayed through the media of size zero women, females begin to feel as if they are fat and strive towards that 'ideal weight'. Eating disorders involve a person, in this case a female distorting their eating habits, through either minimalising or not eating (anorexia) or through vomiting up everything after a meal (bulimia). Eating disorders are closely linked with mental health issues through low self esteem. This low self esteem makes them believe they are fat and so they try to make changes to their lifestyle through less eating and partaking in extreme exercise regimes. It is essential that these cases are realised by close friends and family early and are sent to rehabilitation facilities where they will recieve help from nutritionists and psychologists to fix their eating habits. Females begin to become iron deficient due to menstruation due to significant blood loss and for this reason need twice as much iron as males. As well as during pregnancy there is a high chance of deficiency as the nutrients are passed onto the foetus. Iron is important for our body as it is needed to carry blood and carbon dioxide around the body to be part of key chemical reactions of the body, especially respiration to create the bodies energy. For this reason when a person is deficient they are usually fatigued because of that low energy amount in their body. Iron deficiency can lead to anaemia which is a low blood count also creating fatigue. Therefore reducing the capacity to which the athlete can perform. Iron levels need to be maintained in our body and so it is essential that there is a daily consumption of iron rich foods. Women who are pregnant can harm their child if excessive exercise is undertaken. However it is recommended and beneficial that mild to moderate exercise is undertaken in the early stages of pregnancy and sometimes throughout pregnancy (except in high risk pregnancies). Exercise during pregnancy has also been linked to better performance for the female after the pregnancy as early as the first 6-12 months after birth. The exercise however has to be taken with caution and usual exercise regime recommendations like hydration, warm-up/cool-down. As well as additional recommendations such as limited contact, decreasing intensity as pregnancy progresses, keep same routine as before pregancy and doctor consultation. Resistance training for children is beneficial but not when it is too excessive. For this reason it should only be your own body weight that is lifted through exercises like push ups and sit ups. As well as light weights are acceptable. Resistance training should be well prepared and should concentrate on development and growth of skills and fitness, without it being too excessive. If weights training is too excessive it can cause hormone imbalances and can cause injuries in the growth plates. Resistance training untertaken by children should be supervised and also they should be taught the correct techniques pre first exercise as well as sufficient warm up and cool down procedures. Children are prone to overuse injuries due to their bodies not being fully grown and in particular their bone density, muscles and growth plates are not fully grown which can lead to injuries after they are exposed to repeated impact on a single area for a long period of time. Overuse injuries usually occur in children who are experiencing a growth spurt which is approximately 11-13 years in girls and 13-15 years in boys. Overuse injuries are a specific risk to children due to their brains not being full grown and taking more risks, leading to high amounts of falls and accidents. But can also relate to the type of activity and surface that is trained on. Variety should be applied to exercise regimes for the child so that the same body part is not being used over and over. Due to this vulnerability the coach should be aware of the limits of the athlete and if they do not know their limits they should follow the necessary guidelines for the specific sport such as appropriate conditioning and stretching programs and correct equipment. After years and years of pumping blood the heart and its arteries, veins and other related tissues start to struggle to pump blood and the body begins to malfunction due to an inefficient immune system. Due to this the efficiency of the cardiovascualar system reduces leading to a reduced ability to carry oxygen around the body to be part of key chemical reactions in the body. The main problems that come with age are reduced elasticity of the blood vessels and lungs and a weaker heart which creates a domino effect onto problems like higher blood pressure. For this reason the consequences of age for your heart are most detrimental on aerobic athletes. Aerobic athletes wishing to continue with aerobic exercises should not exercise the system excessively and should exercise within the range of 60-75% MHR. Therefore suitable activities for aged athletes with heart conditions include sports such as golf, cycling and bowls. Once people get older the bodies bone density decreases leading to higher chances of fractures, as well as stress fractures. It is especially evident in women who are amenorrhoic or have lower oestorgen levels which is especially significant in older women who are experiencing menopause. The drop in bone density as a result of menopause can be lessened through strength training throughout adulthood. For these reasons particular care and caution should be given to the aged when participating in exercise especially those activities that involve contact or rapid changes in direction. Activites that allow for minimum risk are non weight bearing sports like aqua aerobics and other aquatic activities Muscle capability and the ROM around joints decrease as a person ages. This is a direct result of lessened elasticity of the tendons, muscles and ligaments. As with most body parts in an elderly person it is essential that attention and exercise is continued on all the parts of the body. In this case it is essential that the muscles, tendons and ligaments are continued to be stretched but to a less strenuous extent. Activities that are suitable for keeping flexibility and joint mobility are tai chi, yoga, aqua aerobics, etc. How does sports medicine address the demands of specific athletes? An exercise type that is very beneficial for an aged persons health in particular their flexibility and heart without the risk of fracture due to no weight being applied and no contact is aqua aerobics Fun Facts 2 Australian children and as many as six Australians of all ages develop type 1 diabetes each day 30 to 50% of all sports injuries in children are as a result of overuse 1 child in every 20 will have a seizure during their childhood, but only 1 in 200 children have epilepsy. -8.8% of female adolescents have an eating disorder
- 5% of females in industrialiased societies will have a eating disorder during their lives
- The ratio of males to females who have eating disorders before puberty is approximately 1:10 and during adolescence is 1:20 20% of women and 50% of pregnant women are iron deficient Heart failure affects 1% of people aged 50 years, 5% in 75 years and older and 25% in 85 years and older - Worldwide there is an osteoperotic fracture every 3 seconds
- 1 in 3 women over 50 and 1 in 5 men over 50 will experience osteoperotic fractures
- 690,000 Australians have osteoperosis About 1 in 7 people (>3 million) in Australia have arthritis, 80% of over 50's suffer from arthritis. Nearly all children are dehydrated to some extent as they do not have the recommended 8 glasses of water per day but it only becomes serious when they lose more than 3% of their body fluids Over time women have evolved from being prohibited from sporting events in Ancient times to today becoming elite athletes that are slowly growing in popularity and noticability. But with new athletes arises new problems and barriers to compete. Female athletes participate in sport for the same reasons men do to gain the physiological, psychological and social benefits related to participation in sport. Young athletes are the start of the process of skill devlopment. Children participate in sport mainly for social means but also for the side benefits for the learning of basic skills that will be helpful later on in life. But due to their young age their bodies are not fully developed and with that comes many problems until they are fully grown. As people age their bodies and its organs begin to deteriorate. Along with bodily deterioration their social circles and support network of the same age begins to diminish as their friends begin to pass away. For these reasons aged people participate in sport for continued development and minimisation of risks of deterioration of basic skills and functions like strength and coordination, as well as for the social benefits and for a sense of enjoyment and happiness Asthma affects 1 in 4 children and 1 in 7 adolescents Nick Bonner
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