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An Overview of Cultural Diversity in U.S. Schools

By: Audrey Koczur, Christina Kinman & Lilia Mercado
by

Audrey Koczur

on 2 October 2012

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Transcript of An Overview of Cultural Diversity in U.S. Schools

By Audrey Koczur, Christina Kinman & Lilia Mercado An Overview of Cultural Diversity in U.S. Schools ELLs
Immigrants
Countries of Origin
Languages
Discrimination
Refugees
Teaching in a culturally diverse society Immigrants Most recent Civil Rights Data Collection Survey 2006 displayed the following nationwide estimations based off 6,000 districts & 60,000 schools:
1.24% are American Indian/Alaska Native; 4.8% are Asian/Pacific Islander; 17.13% are Black (non-Hispanic); 20.41% are Hispanic and 56.42% are White (non-Hispanic)***

Complex process to obtain a visa! The National Visa Center in the US handles applications, fees and instructions for immigrants- a lot of countries don't offer visa services***

Naturalized citizens earn more than non citizens- Higher chance of being employed, higher levels of education, better language skills

Extremely important to assist and understand immigrants' needs as language barriers are the main cause of low grades (2006). Retrieved from U.S. Department of Education website:
http://ocrdata.ed.gov/StateNationalEstimations

National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition.
(2011). NCELA Fact Sheet. Retrieved from


National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition. (2011,
November). What language instruction educational programs
do states use to serve English learners?. Retrieved from
http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/files/uploads/5/LIEPs0406BR.pdf

The Bureau of Consular Affairs. (2011). Visa information for
immigrants. Retrieved from U.S. Department of State website:
http://travel.state.gov/visa/temp/info/info_1302.html

Thompson, G. The Newest Immigrants and their Impact. (2009).
Where education and assimilation collide. Retrieved from The
New York Times website: References *** = See Note Language Number of ELs

Spanish 3,582,884
Vietnamese 85,252
Chinese* 69,821
Arabic 51,606
Hmong 46,311
Haitian 33,845
Tagalog 26,885
Somali 19,699
Navajo 10,507 http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/files/uploads/NCELAFactsheets/EL_Languages_2011.pdf "Two girls, a Muslim in a headscarf and a strawberry blonde in tight jeans, stroll arm in arm. A Hispanic boy wearing a Barack Obama T-shirt gives a high-five to a black student with glasses and an Afro. The lanky homecoming queen, part Filipino and part Honduran, runs past on her way to band practice. The student body president, a son of Laotian refugees, hangs fliers about a bake sale.

But as old divisions vanish, waves of immigration have fueled new ones between those who speak English and those who are learning how." -NY TIMES*** http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/15/us/15immig.html?pagewanted=all&_moc.semityn.www Two-Way Immersion or Two-Way Bilingual

Dual Language

Late Exit Transitional, Developmental Bilingual

Early Exit Transitional

Heritage Language or Indigenous Language Program ELL Programs Quick Fact
In 2020, 2/3 of school population will be from a minority background Culturally Diverse Schools: Diverse learners differentiate in:
Social class
Ethnicity
Culture
Language Ten Languages Most Frequently Reported by English Learners
2009-2010 Implications for Education History from an interesting perspective Discrimination " 1. Their parents are less likely to belong to or attend church.
2. They do not share the principle of cleanliness.
3. They do not understand the principles of saving.
4. They cannot put reason before emotion.
5. They are freer and more social in their expressions of sex.
6. They have not learned that doing one's duty and living up to the expectations of others pays off.
7. They believe the future is non-existent.
8. They believe education is an obstacle course to be surmounted until they can go to work. " These characterizations were found in a textbook for a course- "Cultural Foundations of Education" These defined "disadvantaged" or other "culturally different" children, as noted in the text Refugees A more legal outlook determines refugees are not qualified for assistance if they flee their country from economic hardship or natural disasters

"Refugees with criminal records or certain serious health problems may be ineligible to enter the United States"

Refugee Resettlement Agencies direct refugees where to begin

Once approved, settle all over the U.S. (big cities, suburbs, small towns)

Refugees expected to work in U.S., pay bills, lead "normal" life & become integrated into our society . . . Cut off from home country People who have fled their home due to "war & religious, ethnic or political persecutions" Will teachers really be ready for a more diverse classroom? Discussion Questions How important is it for the community to be involved in a diverse education? How can teachers incorporate the diversity of the world into their classroom to give students a broader understanding? In what ways can diversity strengthen a classroom opposed to dividing it? Poor teacher preparation programs

Current teacher may have limited interracial/intercultural experience

Teacher workforce does not meet current students' needs

High need of teachers particularly in urban settings Challenges of Teaching Diverse Students Set high expectations for all students equally

Teach the school's hidden curriculum

Help minority students in the adaptation process through:
Accommodation without assimilation
Alteration process
Code switching Teacher's Role in a Diverse Classroom Teacher's Role in a Diverse Classroom
(continued) Respect all cultures and value contributions that cultural differences make to learning

Promote cooperative learning

Understand attitudes and values among different cultures
--> These differences influence educational views both positively and negatively

Be aware of student’s Socioeconomic Status
--> Students SES impacts the learning process in many ways;
Basic needs and experiences
Parental involvement
Attitudes and values Using English Only
Content-based English as a Second Language (ESL)

Structured English Immersion (SEI)

English Language Development (ELD) or ESL Pull-out Using English & Another Language QUICK FACT
Research shows that students from the highest quartile are 2 1/2 times more likely to enroll in college and 8 times more likely to graduate than their low SES peers
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