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Chantel Jones

on 26 March 2014

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Transcript of INDUSTRY

Sierra Hill
Chantel Jones
Chidinma Brown
Kevin Huynh

Western Europe
United Kingdom:
dominated world manufacturing during the 19th century(responsible for more than 1/2 of worlds cotton and fabric
Industrial Revolution originated in northern Egland and southern Scotland
United Kingdom expanded Industrial Revolution by attracting new high-tech industries that serve European market
Mid-Rhine Northern Italy
Eastern Europe
Central Industrial District.
Western Europe: Eastern Europe:
Four main industrial districts
United Kingdom
Rhine-Ruhr Valley
The mid-Rhine
Northern Italy
Seven main industrial districts:
Central Industrial District
ST. Petersburg Industrial District
Volga Industrial District
Ural Industrial District
Kuznetsk Industrial District
Eastern Industrial District
They became important because they are closely located near raw materials and markets.
Rhine-Ruhr Valley:
Political instability delayed diffusion of Industrial Revolution
Became most important Industrial area
Industry was dispersed instead of concentrated in one area
The Ruhr flows into the Rhine
centered around Moscow
produces 1/4 of Russian industrial output
situated near the country's largest market
St. Petersburg Industrial District.
one of Russia's early nodes of industrial innovation
specializes in shipbuilding and other industries serving Russia's navy and ports
Volga Industrial District.
grew rapidly during World War II.
contains Russia's largest petroleum and natural gas fields
Ural Industrial District.
contains more than 1,000 types of minerals
Russia controls nearly all the Ural minerals
Industry developement hindered by lack of energy sources
Kuznetsk Industrial District.
Russia's most important manufactoring district
east of the Ural Mountains
contains the country's largest reserves of coal and an abundant supply of iron ore.
Eastern Ukraine.
possesses large deposits of iron ore, manganese, and natural gas
these assets make the region Eastern Europe's largest producer of pig iron and steel
where Eastern Europe's leading manufactoring area is
is an important steel production center
North America
East Asia
Situation Factors
There are 2 situation factors (Proximity to Inputs and Proximity to Markets)
Situation Fator: involve transporting materials to and from a factory
Proximity to Market:
cost of transpoting goods to consumer is a critical locational factor for 3 types of industry
Bulk Gaining, Single Market, and Perishable
Break-of-Bulk Points is a location where transfer among transportation mode is possible
2nd most important Industrial Industry
German portion lacks alot of raw materials
became major Industrial Industry when Germany split into 2 countries
French portion has Europe largest iron-ore field
Industry located in Po River Basin
Po valley has 1/5 of Italy land and 2/3 Industry
attract industries because many worker hydroelectricity from the Alps
Site Factors
Three main factors are Land,Labor,Capital
1860, US had became a major industrial nation
they process alot of food and lumber resources
only has 5% land but 2/3 manufacturing output
had essential raw materials(iron and coal)
Many area developed from it such as: New England, Middle Atlantic, Mohawk Valley, Pittsburg-Lake Erie, and Western Great Lakes
Canada's Industrial Areas:
most important area is St.Lawrence Valley
alot of advantages: contrality to Canadian market and proximity to the Great Lakes and access to inexpensive hydroelectric power
most abundant resource is labor force
became an industrial power by producing goods that could sell in large amounts at cut-price rate
China emerged as 2nd largest manufacting
Although indusrty is located elsewhere in the world the 4 industrial regions account for most of worlds industrial production
Why are industries located where they are?
Proximity to Inputs:
inputs can be from physical environment or made by othe companies
because factories have Bulk-reducing industries , they locate near the inputs (Copper and Steel Industry)
labor-intensive: wages and other compensation paid to employees constitute a high % of expences
its measured in % while high wage is measured in dollars
texile: woven fabric(require less skilled workers)
cottage industry: work done in home
not really a critical factor
land is found in many places
it an be critical if you want to have human and natural resources
factories borrow funds to establish a new factory or to expand their current
its the most important high-tech industry in Silicon Valley
Ability to borrow money is critical in LDC's
Changing Distribution within MDC's
intraregional scale, factories located to peripheral location from the center of cities
interregional scale, factories located to regions not traditionally associated manufactoring from tradional clusters
Intraregional Shift:
moved to rural area because of the land
cities had everything they needed except for land
they felt it was better to operate with one story than a two or three story building
Interregional Shifts:
Right-to-work: maintain "open shop" and prohibit "closed shops"
Shifted towards the South and West in the US
Western European countries , government policies encouraged relocation toward economically distressed peripheral area
New Industrial Regions
3 new regions are Asia, Latin America, and Central Europe
China has 2 main assets in attracting manufactoring: world's largest supply of low-cost labor and world's largest market for many consumer products
manufacturers in 3 areas- the east coast, Yangtze River Valley, and along the Gulf of Bo Hai
New Industrial Regions
Latin America:
Mexico and Brazil are the two leading industrial centers
Mexico manufacturers retain an economic geography advantage over those in other LDC's because of their proximity to the US market
Central Europe:
gives manufacturers attractive combination of 2 important site and situation factors(Labor and Proximity to market)
after fall of communism in 1990's then industries came to Europe
Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary had the most industrial improvement
Attraction of New Industrial Regions
there are 2 attractions- Proximity to lox-cost labor and Outsourcing
Proximity to Low-Cost Labor:
most textile and apparel production in the US moved form the Northeast and the Southeast during mid 20th century

is turning over much of the responsibilty for production to independent suppliers
Renewed Attraction of Tradional
Industrial Region
Proximity to Skilled Labor:
the search for skilled labor has important geographic implications
Fordist is a mass production
there are 3 types of work rules that distinguish post-Fordist(lean or flexible) production- Teams, Problem Solving, and Leveling
Just-in-time delivery is when material arrive at a factory in just enough time before it is needed to its supplier
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