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Transcript of Behaviorism
the Origins of Psychology
BRIEF HISTORY & THEORIST INVOLVED
Structuralism & Functionalism
attempted to measure sensations & thoughts
relied on introspection for data
Theory of Personality
Classical Conditioning Theory
This caused a major shift in thought...
research on dogs.
Continued research on
Watson wrote his famous 1913 paper titled
"Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it"
Supporting classical conditioning and discounting psychoanalysis as unscientific because psychoanalysis can't accurately measure their findings using introspection.
He stated: "The behavior of
man & animals must be
considered on the same plane...
The reactions of animals can be used to predict, explain and control the
After discovering the writings of Watson & Pavlov, B.F. Skinner abandoned his career as a novelist and pursued a psychology graduate program at Harvard.
This theory was supported when Watson conducted the famous "Little Albert" experiments which showed evidence of classical conditioning in humans. He is referred to as the founder of Behaviorism.
Through Skinner's "Cumulative Recorder" research, he found that behavior didn't depend on what happened before the response, like Pavlov and Watson contend...
What happens AFTER the response is what really changes behavior. This is known as Operant Conditioning, which created a tweak to the viewpoint of behaviorism.
These are the ways in which reinforcement and punishment can be used to alter behavior.
Robert Gagné is another major player in behaviorism, due to his research and time spent with the Army Air Corps training, he further adjusted the meaning of behaviorism and pioneered the science of instruction.
His theory basically entailed that there are different types of learning which require different types of instruction.
Combining behaviorism and cognitivism, Gagné provided a clear way for providing instruction.
Ways that learner's learn.
9 EVENTS OF INSTRUCTION
1. Gaining attention
2. Informing learners of objectives
3. Recall of prior learning
4. Presenting the Stimulus
5. Providing Learning Guidance
6. Eliciting Performance
7. Providing Feedback
8. Assessing Performance
9. Enhancing retention and transfer
How Learning Takes Place
Highly scripted lessons often created by instructional designers
Immediate feedback in form of corrections and praise
Stimulus/response initiated by teacher
Instructor provided cues
Essential and extensive content coverage
Clearly communicated goals and objectives
Instructor selects material to match instructional level of student
Instruction is highly structured with predetermined behaviors defining success
Use of advanced organizers
Sequential order of learning
Content is organized into learning units
Students must demonstrate mastery on one unit before being permitted to begin the next
Pretesting to determine knowledge and skills prior to instruction
Students placed in appropriate environment according to instructional level
Formative assessments to determine mastery
Time adjusted for student until mastery is achieved
Feedback gives students understanding
Multiple instructional methods
Attention paid to learning level and learning type as related to content
Stimulus/response with immediate feedback
Traditional computer learning models
Geared toward information recall
Self paced instruction
Considerable amount of practice for learner
Little or no value placed on cognitive processes
Little or no tolerance of different conclusions
Content and audience specific design
Linear programmed learning models more true to operative response in tradition of Skinner
Learning is demonstrated and measured through observable behaviors and not through internal thought processes.
During this same time frame, Edward Thorndike was also completing animal experiments to prove how learning occurs
He created puzzle boxes to determine how long it would take a cat to escape, both on their own and through observation, from the box.
Thorndike found that cats didn't learn from observations/insights, but instead that there was a learning curve from their own 'discoveries.'
He interpreted his findings in terms of association and this became known as "Connectionism."
Much of what is learned is determined by the environmental conditions in which learning is taking place.
Instruction is designed under a stimulus-response approach in which students are provided a stimulus by the instructor and respond through measurable behaviors.
Desired behaviors are developed through repetition and reinforcement aimed at encouraging desired behaviors and discouraging undesirable behaviors.
Learning takes place in a prescribed sequence of steps determined by the teacher according to current and desired behaviors of student.
In 1942, Clark Hull published "Principles of Behavior."
Hull's learning theory focuses mainly
on the principle of reinforcement, from a biological perspective.
Learning was strictly a stimulus-response connection.
Opponent of Edward Tolman.
1946 paper brought about the concept of Latent Learning, a form of cognitism.
Keywords of Learning Process
Tolman showed that animals can learn facts from their environment that can be used later at will...
... rather than learning automatic responses that were caused by stimulus
which indicate knowledge and learning
which conditions and develops
Tolman was a behaviorist, but in this experiment, he theorized that some form of cognition exists in learning.
Pioneer in Cognitive Pyschology.
Rat begins at point A and finds food at point B. When released from point C, he still finds the food at point B. The rat didn't 'learn' the right turn.
An example of this theory: My daughter has watched the table being set for dinner for the first 2 years of her life, and now realizes that she knows how to set the table.
Knowledge may not be available to the consciousness, but it appears when needing this knowledge.
It seems to me that this opened the door for Robert Gagné and his findings of 5 different types of learning.
Behaviorism as a school of psychological thought was the mainstream from the late 1800 through the mid-1900's. This theory discounted the earlier schools of thought that relied on introspection for collection of information, which can't be measured. Behaviorism's reason for becoming the eminent way to think in psychology is due to its ability to be measurable and hence, accepted in the scientific community.
DESCRIPTION OF THE THEORY
Behaviorism, in its purest form, focuses on objective observable behaviors, not activities of the mind. Conditioning is the learning process. There are two kinds of conditioning in behaviorism: Classic conditioning where a natural reflex responds to a stimulus and Operant conditioning, when a response to a stimulus is reinforced.
Learn more about Tolman's
latent learning study here
Gagné's Theory of Instruction
: making discriminations, forming concepts, applying rules, and solving problems.
Learner is consistently able to recall information and facts that have been taught.
Behaviorist Goals of Instruction
Learner is able to demonstrate knowledge by defining concepts and executing skills.
Not a psychologist, but a physiologist!
Teacher takes cell phone from student when seen using it in the classroom.
The class is told that there will be no quiz for this chapter if everyone turns in the homework on time.
Offering the students bonus points for doing extra credit on a homework assignment.
A teacher yells at the class when they are being disruptive and they quiet down.
negative stimuli that are meant to increase the behavior that they follow
positive stimuli that are meant to increase the behavior that they follow.
negative stimuli that are meant to increase the behavior that they follow.
Negative stimuli that are meant to decrease the behavior that they follow.
Oh, yeah, don't forget about Classical Conditioning.
You hear "this won't hurt" just before being jabbed with a needle by the nurse; the next time you hear "this won't hurt" you cringe with fear.
This isn't as useful in the education setting.
Which of Marzano's 9 Instructional Strategies align with Behaviorism?
Our Key Resources
& Reinforce Effort
Answer questions for the chapter
Work on the vocabulary for the unit
Write an essay about a case study
Memorize the definitions for important terms
Solve the following problems for practice
Perform research on the internet
Review notes for the day for a quiz next class
Work on problems in class right after learning
Learn to recite the Gettysburg Address
Write a review of the class lesson/lecture
Display finished products
Hold high expectations
Praise student efforts
Hold individual student conferences
Give a 'high five' on a correct response
Have an in-class knowledge competition
Have a student recognized on the school news for an accomplishment
Give awards for high accomplishment
Occasionally, give rewards in class for correct responses
Learner is able to demonstrate behaviors that exhibit mastery of concepts, skills, and knowledge.
These resources provided us a wealth of information.
Gagné, R. M. (1984, April). Learning outcomes and their effects: Useful categories of human performance. American Psychologist, 39(4), 377-385. (10.1037/0003-066X.39.4.377.).
Students are able to display mastery of concepts through measurable behavior outcomes.
Learners respond to stimulus in ways approaching automation.
Tennyson, R.D & Schott, F. (1997). Instructions design theory, research and models. In R.D. Tennyson, F. Schott, N.M. Seel & S. Dijkstra (Eds.), Instructional design: International perspective (pp. 1-18). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
VanderZwaag, L. (1998, December). Edward C. Tolman. In Muskingum. http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/tolman.htm
John, W. (1913, March). Psychology as the behaviorist views it.
Psychological Review, 20(2), 158-177.
Learner is able to perform behavioral tasks to the predetermined level of mastery.
: requires recall, recognize, or state contents in learner’s own words.
: figuring out how to organize, cluster, remember, and apply new information. Learning how to learn.
: How to "do" performance effectively.
: Mental state; plays a strong role in motivational aspect of learning.
Why didn't the other 6 make the cut?
Under behaviorism, as it is defined, we are talking about responses to reactions, both before or after the response. Note taking, which garnered some consideration for behaviorism, also includes the ability to summarize, which requires cognitive thoughts, so this strategy was keep off our list. Likewise, the other 5 strategies used forms of cognitism or constructivism.
Setting objectives & providing feedback only made our list if student's were not required to ponder the feedback. Even though theorists we mentioned, like Gagnè, began to develop theories of learning that incorporated cognitive elements, the basis of those approaches was still pure behaviorism.
Similarities & Differences:
comparing, classifying, and creating metaphors, analogies requires more from cognitive than behaviorist.
Summarizing & Note-taking:
note taking, as mentioned above, could fit the bill of behaviorism if it was copied verbatim from the teacher's overhead, but the summarizing of information is does not. That is much more cognitive.
Non linguistic representations:
definitely not behaviorism. Fits the bill for constructivist prabably more than cognitive.
This is constructivist all the way.
Generating & testing hypotheses:
in the realm of the cognitive, due to the high amount of thought involved in this strategy.
Questions, Cues, & Advance organizers: t
he problem with the first two in this strategy is that they require eliciting inference and analysis, which is cognitive. Advanced organizers would fit in more with the constructivist view.
Strategies That Didn't Make The Cut
Setting Objectives &
Teacher writes objective for class to view
Teacher explains the objective to the class
Show correct answers for incorrect responses
Teacher creates goals for where learning will lead
Return assignments asap to assist in learning from mistakes
Creating adjusted learning goals for learners with special needs
Have a student recognized on the school news for an accomplishment
Follow up on master for the objective at the end of the lesson
Use of KWL charts, but only if by the teacher
Ensure that objectives fulfull curriculum requriements
(with NO student requirements)