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Week 5 Lesson 2: The Long March (The encirclement campaigns and the breakout)

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by

Liam Brooks

on 20 July 2017

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Transcript of Week 5 Lesson 2: The Long March (The encirclement campaigns and the breakout)

Week 5 Lesson 2: The Long March (The encirclement campaigns and the breakout).
LI:
To understand the causes of the Long March and its initial stages.

SC:
Students will be able to evaluate the success of the Guomindang’s (Kuomintang)
encirclement campaigns
and explain the CCP’s
breakout
.

Recap:
The Nationalist Decade (1927-37)
Structure of Nationalist Government
Modernisation programme

Nanjing the capital, not Beijing.

Not very democratic (loose interpretation of Sun Yixian's 'period of tutelage' )

Jiang Jieshi the 'Generalissimo'

A fulfillment of Sun Yixian's Three Principles of the People?
Challenges: regionalism, corruption, taxes
Regionalism
China still not unified (persistence of warlord rule, provincial rulers not interested in centralised power from Nanjing)
Corruption
Bureaucratic lethargy and corruption was rife.
Jiang Jieshi:
‘I have observed that many of the staff members do not seem to know what they are supposed to do while others do not know how to work at all. That is why are organisation becomes worse and worse. I have often observed that many staff members just sit at their desks and gaze into space, others read newspapers and still others sleep.’
Taxes
80% of budget on military spending.
Lack of strong central government = limits on tax revenue. Provinces impose own taxes.
• Series of campaigns to improve everyday behavior and
combat corruption in government organisations
launched in 1934.

• Discipline and traditional values lead to national moral
rejuvenation.

• Influence of Confucianism: social decency, honesty, right
conduct and self-respect.

• An urban movement … little relevance to peasantry.
New Life Movement
7 July 1937 - Marco Polo Bridge incident sparks Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-45)

Horrific treatment of Chinese
Background of the Long March
Jiang sought national unity and therefore wanted to eliminate the CCP

Between 1930-34 there were
Four Encirclement Campaigns
, which all failed to surround and destroy the Jiangxi Soviet

Fifth Encirclement Campaign
is successful (October 1934), in part due to change in CCP tactics under Otto Bruan

CCP initiates a '
breakout
' through the GMD lines and thus began the Long March
Short video
Full transcript