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Climate Change:Sea Levels Rising

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by

Amy Lee

on 22 September 2014

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Transcript of Climate Change:Sea Levels Rising

Themes
Why others and I should I be
concerned
about climate
change and sea levels rising

To me, climate change is important because it can create significant damage to our planet and can make life extremely difficult for us and our future generations. If we were really concerned with our planet,then we would do our best to try to ensure that our planet will continue to stay in good condition, without reducing the ozone layer, which then results in sea levels rising.
Solutions
1. Travel Eco-Friendly:
- transportation is one of the biggest factors that release Canada’s greenhouse gas emissions, causing about 25%
-it is recommended to walk or cycle instead of drive
-public transit is also suggested rather than using many transportation vehicles at the same time because per vehicle, harmful fumes are produced
-it may be a hard goal to achieve especially for long distances but you should “green your commute” whenever you can/ as much as possible
-some benefits are that you will save money and get into better shape
-if you can’t go entirely car-free, another option is trying to go carpooling/car sharing or using a small, fuel efficient vehicle
Climate Change:
Global Warming
:
Sea Levels Rising

Climate change has been melting masses of ice around the world such as glaciers and ice sheets, which approximately cover about 10% of the world’s land area and exist on every continent except Australia. They are the world’s largest reservoir of fresh water, holding about 75%, however now they are losing mass because of the change of temperature and precipitation. “Recent studies show that the movement of ice towards the ocean from both of the major ice sheets has increased significantly.” The speed of the melting ice is increasing, with more streams flowing into the ocean, doubling in just a few years.
2. Be Energy Efficient:
- change light bulbs into compact fluorescents or LEDs
-unplug electronics when not in use
-wash clothing in warm or cold water, and then hang them instead of drying them, which wastes huge quantities of energy
-other ways to conserve energy are looking for the Energy Star label when purchasing appliances
-install a thermometer that you can program/adjust
3. Choose Renewable Energy:
- switch to clean, renewable power
4. Eat Smartly:
-eat at least one meat-free meal a day, the lower on the food chain, the better
-“Eat food. Not too much. Mostly plants.”
5. Reduce your garbage:
-garbage in landfills produce methane, a greenhouse gas
-try to compost kitchen scraps, garden trimmings, etc.
-reduce, reuse, and recycle


-when shopping, package items with minimal or recyclable packaging
to make something smaller
or use less
reuse materials instead of throwing
them away or pass them onto others
who can use it
make new things from recycled
items, don't just toss everything in
the trash
6. Let Polluters Pay:
-carbon taxes make polluting more expensive and green solutions more affordable
-it allows energy-efficient businesses and households to save money
- it is one of the most effective ways to reduce Canada’s greenhouse gas emissions
7. Fly Less:
-air travel=huge carbon footprint
-consider green options for transportation or vacation closer to home
it refers to the amount of carbon(CO2) we
emit individually in a 1-year period
8. Inform Yourself and Others:
-follow the most recent news about climate change and share it with others
9. Get Involved:
-ask for immediate action on climate change to political government
-do simple tasks such as recycling around your community since even little things can make a big difference
10. Support and Donate:
-support and donate to organizations who are working to find solutions to climate change
Motor vehicles are currently creating nearly
half of smog-forming compounds, more than half
of the nitrogen-oxide emissions, and about half of
the toxic-pollutant emissions in the United States.
It is not only resulting in sea levels rising but
because of additional harmful emissions, another
effect of greenhouse gases is acid rain.
Planes, trains, and other everyday vehicles create emissions that are adding to our greenhouse gases in our atmosphere increasing the intensity of the greenhouse effect.
Cars
Nitrogen Oxide (NOx): Vehicles release this emission when they combust/ burn the nitrogen compounds in the vehicle fuels. Especially when the car's engine is a diesel engine, NOx can often be found in large amounts rather than gasoline engines with higher combustion temperatures.
Some examples of greenhouse gas
emissions:
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs): This is a carbon containing compound, which is formed from unburned or partially burned fuel, and sometimes by evaporation of fuel.
Nitrogen oxide and volatile organic compounds can react to the ozone layer during the summer while during winter the emissions that the vehicles release are trapped near the ground,.
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2): This is emitted from the combustion of the suphur that is contained in the fuel.
When a car's engine is running, many different
gases and emissions are emitted that can severely
damage the environment.
Effect on the Environment:
-cars emit greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide,
which contribute to global warming
-the pollutants from cars are deposited onto the ground
and water, which will affect the health of living species
-the acid rain may harm the organisms that depend on the
resources
Effects on the Ozone layer:
The ozone layer is what protects the Earth from the SUN's powerful rays, however with negative human contribution it is reduction this protective "shield".
Compared to other barriers, vehicles contain little substances that contribute to depletion of the ozone layer such as chlorine or bromine heavy substances.
Electricity causes pollution in my ways, some worse than others.
In order to produce electricity, we burn fossil fuels, which is a non-renewable energy source that is created from the remains of plants and animals. Some examples, of fossil fuels are oil and petroleum.
Petroleum, is used for about 38% of the United State's energy, which is used for many purposes. It can be used for transportation, making electricity, and making many other items. It turns out that many pollutants are being released into the air because people use electricity.
The least electricity we use, the better!
Some helpful
suggestions are...
One non-renewable energy
source that is commonly
used is coal.
Burning coal to create
electricity affects air quality,
human health, wildlife, and
climate change, which impacts
sea levels.
One 150 mega-watt coal power plant can release
more than million tonnes of greenhouse gas
emissions.
In addition, burning coal produces large amounts of
sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and particulate
matter. These are toxic substances that can
result in early death, respiratory problems,
irritation, inflammation, or damage to the lung.
Coal-bed methane
(CBM) is similar to natural
gas, and the demand for
CBM is increasing rapidly.
Energy-efficient
Lightbulb
-18% of greenhouse gas emissions
come from meat and
dairy productions
M
A
N
G
O
!
Choose alternatives to meat
and dairy, try to eat more grain
or fruit and vegetables rather
than eat meat or dairy
Fly Less
Currently air travel is becoming a larger percentage of what is contributing to climate change, sea levels rising because we love air travel. Currently, we do not have a substitute that can meet our needs for transportation that can move large quantities of people/passengers, can travel long distances, and moves at a reasonable speed.
An aircraft burns huge amounts of fuel, especially higher near the sky which releases emissions that most often heats up the planet.
Carbon Dioxide
:
Air travel creates as much carbon dioxide per
passenger, per kilometer as one passenger
in a car produces .
A car creates an average of about 5 tonnes
of carbon dioxide in one year but, just a trip to London,
will create about 1.5 tonnes or more.
Nitrogen Oxide and Ozone:
The nitrogen oxide that airplanes produce
affects the ozone concentration. This increases in
ozone in the upper troposphere. This is effective
at increasing the temperature of our planet .
Increased
Usage
:
It is becoming a rapidly increasing portion of released greenhouse gas
emissions.
In 1992, it caused about only 2% of human-created carbon dioxide
and about 13% of carbon dioxide from all transportation vehicles.
The world's air passenger traffic more than doubled from 1985 to 2000 and air cargo traffic grew even more quickly.
If air travel keeps increasing, with more greenhouse gases increasing ,air travel will become a bigger part of this currently problematic issue.
Of
Geography
Global warming is very likely due to the burning of coal, oil, and gas. Now agricultural, industrial activities, and other human activities are beginning to alter the global climate and the environment. At the same time, there are other factors that create excessive greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, such as population growth, deforestation, factory farming, and over usage of fossil fuels and other non- renewable energy sources.
Interaction
Agriculture may
provide us the
food we eat,
however did you
know that it also
has big impacts
on global warming
and climate change.
Positive Effects
Negative Effects
-organic agriculture
-agriculture would reduce the
quantity of carbon dioxide released
-local food systems
-industrial agriculture has
huge carbon dioxide
-greenhouse gas emissions
from fertilizer and pesticide
use
-how people use
agriculture land
-creates nearly 20 percent of nation's carbon dioxide emissions
-on a global level, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change states that agriculture contributes 12% of global greenhouse gas emissions.
Manufacture and use of pesticides and fertilizers, equipment, trucking and
shipping, and electricity all bumps up the impact to between 25 to 30%
of all the US carbon footprint
-actual farming makes industrial agriculture so detrimental
-land use changes results in more surface warming
Greenhouse gases
Human activities result in emissions of four principal greenhouse gases:
carbon dioxide (CO2)
,
methane (CH4)
,
nitrous oxide (N2O)
and the
halocarbons
(a group of gases containing fluorine, chlorine and bromine). These gases cause concentrations to increase with time.
Carbon dioxide: This greenhouse gas emission is released when we use fossil fuels, for transportation vehicles, heating and cooling, and manufacture of goods. Deforestation released carbon dioxide because since they reduce the number of plants there are, there are less plants to produce energy by in taking carbon dioxide and changing it to oxygen that we can breathe through a process called photosynthesis.
Methane: It is a result of human activities agriculture, natural gas distribution, and landfills. Methane concentrations are being increased because of the current population growth rate .
Nitrous Oxide: Also emitted from human activities such as fertilizer use and fossil burning. In addition, natural processes in the soil and the oceans also release nitrous oxide.
Halocarbons: Increased primarily due to human activity partially
because of natural processes. The abundance of chlorofluorocarbon gases is decreasing as a result of international regulations designed to protect the ozone layer.
"Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded there's a more than 90 percent probability that human activities over the past 250 years have warmed our planet. "
It also concluded there's a better than 90 percent probability that human-produced greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide have caused the majority of the increase in Earth's temperatures over the past 50 years.
MORE people=More pollution created thus,
the current released greenhouse gas
emissions will increase, reducing the
thickness of the ozone layer, which
is a shield that wraps the Earth with
a blanket of air, about 1930 kilometers
above the Earth.
Location
-one of the most vulnerable
continents to climate change
-it is further worsened due to
the fact that Africa is a developing
country
-it has a poor state of economic
development
-low adaptive capacity
Africa
Antarctica
Europe
South
America
North
America
Australia
Asia
-it is the most populated continent in
the world
-both past and present climate trends
has been increasing frequently
-coastal areas in Asia, sea levels are
likely to rise
-resulting in loss of coastal ecosystems
-millions of people living along the coast
of Asia will be in risk of flooding and associated
damage
and New Zealand
-mid-latitude and sub-Antarctic
islands and water
Some impacts of climate change
on Australia and New Zealand are:
-more heat waves and fewer frost
-more rain in north-western Australia
and south-western New Zealand
-less rain in southern and eastern
Australia and north-eastern New Zealand
-increase in the intensity of Australian
droughts
-rise in sea level by 70 mm
Australia and New Zealand is experiencing change in water supply, ecosystems, reduced
snow falls, and the shrinking of glaciers.
-affect the people living in coastal areas such
as salt marshes
-some impacts are storm flooding and shoreline
erosion
-increased risk of death due to increased heat waves caused by global warming
-due to diminishing snowfields, water supply will
eventually become more scarce and unavailable
South America has experienced weather related
issues like:
-intense rainfall
-flooding
-Amazon drought
Sea level rise will severely impact these small islands, leading to coastal inundation, thereby reducing the already limited land area. Also, the threat from sea level rise is likely to be amplified by changes in tropical cyclones.
•Europe: Increased risk of floods; more frequent coastal flooding and increased erosion from storms and sea level rise. More and more glaciers ,snow cover and winter tourism will be reduced; extensive species losses; reductions of crop productivity in southern Europe.
The rising temperature in
Antarctica is resulting in
ice shelves, melting into the sea,
which will add to the sea
level rising.The Antarctic Peninsula is particularly sensitive to small rises in the annual average temperature, this has increased by nearly 3°C in the region in the last 50 years, this is about 10 times faster than the average in the rest of the world.
Continents all over the world are being impacted by climate change in different ways, but never the less, there are negative consequences that follow along which we have to show responsibility to stop this ongoing issue/problem.
The theme of geography, interaction helps me think about
this topic because climate change and sea levels rising
is mostly caused by human activity and if we were more
conscious of how what we are doing is harming the environment
and the ozone layer, the melting of the ozone layer wouldn't
be happening.
Location helps me think about climate change and sea levels rising because each location/place in the world is contributing to this issue, whether or not they realize it or not, and in return is being affected by it.
Climate Change:
Climate change occurs when there are long-term weather patterns,which are altered through human activity. Global warming is one measure of climate change, and is a rise in the average global temperature. They can be distinguished by changes in temperature, precipitation, winds, and other indicators. Climate change can involve both changes in average conditions and changes in variability,
-humans can live on Earth because of Earth, some of the Sun's radiation bounces back into space because of the layer that protects the Earth
-carbon dioxide is stored all over the planet but now that they are being released into the atmosphere, the Earth contains 32% more carbon dioxide than it did at the start of the industrial era
-climate change and it gets warmer and extreme weather events are becoming more common
-since 1900, the global temperature has raised by 0.6 degrees Celsius

Sea levels Rising
Greenhouse Gases:
Greenhouse gases trap heat in the atmosphere
and causes the global temperature to rise.
Greenhouses gases include:
-carbon dioxide -nitrous oxide -sulphurhexafluoride (SF6)
-methane -water vapour -perfluorocarbons (PFCs)
-hydrofluorocarbons

Warming ocean=Rising ocean
-with the ozone layer becoming thinner, more sun rays are rapidly melting glaciers and other ice forms, which have raised the sea levels
-about 6,000 years ago, the sea level was fairly stable
-over this century, more and more places are rising by about 25 to 30 cm in comparison to land according to the Environmental Protection Agency
-over the last century our sea level has rose more than the average over the last several thousand years
-the released greenhouse gas emissions, causing global warming are causing sea water to be warmer and expand thermally
-increase volume of the water, raising it higher than the surface level
-a possibility that may occur is islands, coastal cities, and beaches will be destroy by the rising of the sea throughout the century

Short Term
and

Long Term

Short Term
Long Term
-gradually islands, coastal cities, and beaches will be destroyed due to the rising of the sea throughout the century
-approximately ten percent of the worlds population - 600 million people - live in low lying areas in danger of being flooded
- more stored methane, a hazardous greenhouse gas, can be released if coastal waters are warm enough causing greatly increased warming, same goes for carbon dioxide that is a possibility especially in the Arctic tundra
-mostly in Antarctica, floating ice does not change sea levels, however ice descending off land increases the volume of the sea
-melting glaciers are just a small trickle of water that is impacted by global warming because if for instance the West Antarctic Ice Sheet melted, than the sea level would rise by 20 feet
-ice shelves, permanent floating sheets of ice connected to a landmass(part of continental crust above sea level) will melt
-lost wetlands and waterways
-coastal erosion and landslides
-sea water intrusion in wells

-change of shape of land due to slow movement of land forms of continents
-temporary flooding of coastal lands
-fewer periods of natural warming and cooling near tropical areas
-global temperature variation=causes temperature to keep rising and falling
-acid rain
-
Lost wetlands and waterways:
Wet lands usually cover areas that are low lying but with sea levels rising it is converting these valuable areas into deeper water. They provide a habitat for wildlife such as salmon, filters out hazardous chemicals/ toxic, and absorb excess water.
Coastal erosions and landslides:
It is predicted that especially in the Pacific Ocean that climate change is to intensify storm conditions and wave height. This will result in higher coastal erosion rates and more storm damage, with increased property damage to roads, water treatment systems, and transportation systems.
Sea water intrusion in wells:
With the higher sea level, it will reduce the availability of water for coastal communities. Seawater intrusion, the movement of marine saltwater into freshwater aquifers, could become a serious problem.
When the shape
of land forms change,
ocean currents and
wind patterns change,
which affects the
radiated or transferred
heat, and distribution
of land mass
Carbon dioxide and methane themselves
are not bad, we need them in limited
quantities to keep our atmosphere
in just the right temperature for
humans to exist on Earth, but if there
are excess of these gases, the
temperature will rise and lead to global
warming, climate change, which then
results in sea levels rising.
Our planet absorbs most of the solar radiation that reaches the Earth which in turn radiates the heat back into space.
We may believe that climate change is a natural event but it is a misconception that it has to do with the absolute warmth of the Earth.Humans depend on the temperature of the Earth to stay just right, and we can adapt to changes of climate that take place slowly over long stretches of time but the climate changes throughout this decade is very challenging to adjust to and overcome. Our human civilization heavily relies on our current climate so if our climate departures from this particular climate, it will cause consequent disruption to our lives and to the world.Over the past 1000 years, the average temperature has been raised more than half a Celsius, by about 0.8 degrees Celsius, and it is predicted that the average global temperature will be expected to rise by 1.4°C to 6.4°C over the next century. A rise in the overall temperature of the earth affects the climate in regions around the world in different ways, like agriculture, wildlife/environment, and the economy, which are all factors that we depend on for a flourishing and comfortable life. If we continue to live the way we are right now, it will eventually lead to the extinction of the majority of species that we share the planet with,which often provides us our necessities and the food chain will become unbalanced. Weather patterns/ rain patterns will change which will lead to a decline of access to fresh water because more and more water will dry up and water reservoirs will become contaminated. This will affect the quantity and quality of the water we receive to drink, that results in crops failing and our food supply decreasing.
Temperature/ Climate:
Climate
Change
Sea Levels
Rising
The flooding of wetlands and the contamination of aquifers affects agricultural soils, and lost habitat for fish, birds, and plants, which than can create a shortage of necessities for humans, especially when the population rate is rapidly increasing throughout this century.
When large storms hit land, higher sea levels mean bigger, more powerful storm surges that can strip away everything in their path.

In addition, hundreds of millions of people live in areas that will become increasingly vulnerable to flooding. Higher sea levels would force them to abandon their homes and relocate. Low-lying islands could be submerged completely
.
Humanity may be able to survive but what will humanity mean in the few countries that remain habitable when, they don't have enough space for others, that have lost their home.
Once the coastal tides begin to flood permanently, people will start to pack their belongings and find a more stable place to live on, that is not in risk of being flooded, in search of life elsewhere, but is there really a suitable place to live.
The rate of sea level rise is determined to have decelerated over the past 5 years from 3.2 mm/yr to only 1.5 mm/yr.
But if you look at these
two graphs out of the many graphs
I found that shows that due to ocean warming,
sea levels are predicted to continue rising
even higher than it currently is.
The government should be concerned because it gives world leaders an opportunity to show how the world can be united to find a solution to climate change and sea levels rising. It will prove that they have the ability to show that countries can overcome their differences to do something that should be done on a global level.
Different Views and Perspectives
Industrial Companies:
Some industrial companies have decided to change themselves in order to slow down/prevent climate change and sea levels rising. Since May 2012, SKF WAS accepted into the WWF Climate Savers program which enables companies to target for greenhouse gas reduction in their own emissions and working with other companies, suppliers and partners, and to find solutions for a clean, low-carbon economy. However, most companies do not really care about our planet and climate change, often, what they are interested in is how much money is in their wallet or in their pocketbooks. They focus more on profits, jobs, and economic growth rather think about the environmental and social impacts of their activities. They do not see climate change and sea levels rising as a major obstacle to accomplishing their goal of earning money.
Ordinary Citizens:
One of the effects of climate change is the intensification of weather and people of various ages are vulnerable to these changes.Global warming has caused more heavy rainfall events in the United States over the last few decades along with an increased likelihood of devastating floods. Ordinary citizens, especially those who live near the coast will be in risk of their home being flooded with sea levels rising higher, because of the climate change, we are all contributing to. We all want to find solutions to solve this problem, but we make misconceptions that small things will not make a difference to solving such a huge issue, but everything that we do will affect our planet whether it is positively or negatively. Many normal people want change because eventually it will affect them and our environment.
Government:
The government wants the best for their people and wants to solve issues that are occurring all over the world. They try to think about all the different perspectives and the way they think about climate change and sea levels rising because everyone has their own opinion, which is why it is so hard to please everyone.
With so many different perspectives, the government and other authority figures have difficulty finding a solution that will meet the needs of all perspectives since everyone has different views of looking at things. To some people, such as industrial companies since climate change does not directly affect the business of manufacturing products, etc., there is not much concern for businesses. Ordinary people contribute to human activities which causes climate change, but it also affects them so they want to find a solution that fixes climate change, but in such a way that they don't have to change the way they live currently. Climate change is a global issue that needs to be solved but the question is how will we solve it?
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