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Transcript of Astronomy Project
Sun isn't in the exact center
Three laws of planetary motion Galileo (1609) First person to use a telescope to observe objects in space Isaac Newton (1687) Law of gravity explained why all planets orbit the sun Edwin Hubble (1924) Universe is larger than our galaxy and the Milky Way doesn't include everything in space What are telescopes? Optical Telescopes Non-optical Telescopes Instruments that gather electromagnetic radiation from objects in sapce to concentrates it for better observation common type of telescope How Does An Optical Telescope Work? Collects visible light through an objective lense --> focuses it to a focal point for closer observation Refractive vs. Reflective uses lenses to gather/focus light uses mirrors to gather/focus light Advantages: gather more light, all light from an object can be seen together, flaws in glass don't affect the light Disadvantages: not perfectly focused, limited size
study invisible radiation Radio Telescopes detect radio waves What happens when you link radio telescopes? astronomers can get more detailed images of the universe Why do we put telescopes (optical and non-optical) in space? to avoid interference from the atmosphere The Big Bang Theory The Hall of Fame As it gained more matter, it gained more gravity causing it to be round, heat up, and have a different formation. Was the Earth always like this? As oxygen level increased and carbon dioxide level decreased, the ozone layer formed to block out UV radiation making it possible for life to move on land. How did the first-life form? Crust: thin, outermost layer of the Earth; low densities (oxygen, silicon, aluminum) that is 5-100 km thick
Mantle: layer of Earth beneath the crust; made of materials like magnesium and iron (2,900 km below surface)
Core: Central part of the Earth below the mantle; densest material and extends to center of the Earth (6,400 km below the surface) The layers of the Earth 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% argon The Earth's Atmosphere As planetesimals crashed and collided
As the mass of Earth increased, the force of gravity increased making it round.
As it was changing shape, it started heating up and there is a lot of energy inside the Earth How did it form? When more times rocks melted a cooled, heavier elements sank while lighter elements float to the top up to a point where it rained and remained. Constantly changing as the Earth cools/heats up, layers form, comets crash, and volcanoes erupt
Third planet from the sun where most of the surface is water and most of the atmosphere is nitrogen and oxygen What is the Earth? The Earth crushes the dense center of a star tht makes an object so massive that light can escape its gravity Black Holes collasped star due to gravity where all the star's particles are neutrons (either still or spinning) Neutron Stars and Pulsars gigantic explosion where a massive star colaaspse and shoot its outer layers into space Supernovas What happen when stars grow old? small hot start that is the leftover center of an older star that no longer generate energy White Dwarfs expands and cools once it uses all of its hydrogen
center of the star shrinks, atmosphere grows large Red Giant long stage of life cycle where enormous amount of energy is released (hydrogen atoms fuse into helium atoms) Main-Sequence Stars Life Cycle of Stars Stars The Universe Sunspots: Cool, dark spots of the photosphere of the sun (the magnetic field causes low activity)
Solar Flares: Regions extremely high temperature and brightness that develop on the sun’s surface Sunspots vs. Solar Flares Burning or Shrinking? Gravity is going to make the sun shrink & we need a something more powerful than gravitational force How did the Sun form? E=MCsquared
Matter and energy are interchangeable
Nuclear Fusion: 2 or more low-mass nuclei join together to form a new nuclei
Hydrogen nuclei's energy overcome the repuslive force and fuses into helium How is Energy Produced? Appears to be solid but actually has layers
Corona: Outer atmosphere
Chromosphere: Thin region below corona
Photosphere: Visible part of sun from Earth
Convective zone: Gas circulates
Radiative zone: Dense region
Core: Center of Sun where energy is produced How is the Sun Structured? The Sun Galaxy What are Stars made of? different elements in form of gases where inner layers are dense/hot and outer layers are cool you can detect these elements through the pattern of line in a star's absorption spectrum Everything is not what it seems! blue-hottest color
red-coolest color apparent magnitude-brightness of a light/star
absolute magnitude-actual brightness of a star apparent motion of the sun and stars in our sky due to Earth's rotation
however, each star is moving in space What helped studying stars? H-R diagram-shows relationship between the star's surface temeprature and absolute magnitude Other matter were traveling towards the solar nebula's center causing the center to become so hot and dense that hydrogen atoms fused to form helium-->balance between outward pressure and inward pull of gravity large groups of stars, dust, and gas What types of galaxies are there? Spiral Galaxies Elliptical Galaxies Irregular Galaxies What are inside galaxies? bulge at the center and spiral arms (gas, dust, new stars) 1/3 galaxies are massive blobs of stars that look like spheres or stretched out spheres and have bright centers and little dust/gas (contain mostly old stars)
large: gaint elliptical galaxies
small: dwarf elliptical galaxies leftover galaxies that don't fit into any other class (shape is irregular) Nebulas Star Clusters Quasars large clouds of gas and dust that absorb light or reflect starlight
spiral galaxies usually contain while elliptical galaxies have few globular cluster-group of stars that look like a ball (located in spherical halo of spiral galaxy)
open cluster-group of closely grouped stars (located along spiral disk of galaxy) quasars-starlike sources of light that are extremely far away
most powerful energy sources (may be caused by blackholes)