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Gardner's Multiple Intelligences

A brief look at a selection of Multiple Intelligences by Georgia Barkas, Peter Kimlin, Jacqui Martin, Kasia Sisson and Nikki Stobie

Jacqui Martin

on 18 May 2015

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Transcript of Gardner's Multiple Intelligences

Seen more as a talent, than a learning intelligence.
Learners often struggle with reading tasks. Prefer to not read instructions and just learn through watching, or just trying.
Learners can feel satisfied with learning the basics and not increase learning past that point.
They frequently struggle with sitting still and paying attention. They are often uncomfortable in classes that involve a great deal of reading and lectures and may need to take frequent breaks while studying.
They often have poor handwriting, struggle with spelling, tend to fidget, and fiddle with pens and other objects (Alexander, n.d).
Multiple Intelligences


(DCITHAR 2012)
(Childcare Education Institute 2015)
(Loggerhead 2015)
Kinesthetic learners are “doers” and “hands on” learners. They prefer to learn through doing. An ability to use one’s own body to create products or solve problems (Davis, Christodoulou, Seider, Gardner, 2012).
Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence entails the potential of using one’s whole body or parts of the body to solve problems. It is the ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements (Smith, Mark, 2002, 2008).
The core elements of the bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are control of one's bodily motions and the capacity to handle objects skilfully (Gardner, Hatch, 1989). Gardner elaborates to say that this also includes a sense of timing, a clear sense of the goal of a physical action, along with the ability to train responses.
Hands-on activities like experiments, art projects, role-plays and skits give these learners the greatest advantage. They often enjoy activities like sports, cooking, constructing projects and making crafts. They often shine in careers such as actor, dancer, sculptor, and athletics/sport.

• Ability to visualise what can be heard and was is thought about
• Able to work well with puzzles and games
• Great awareness of surroundings
• Capacity to draw things that are visualised (Hoekstra-de-Roos 2013)

• Lack of organisational skills
• Difficulty communicating ideas into words
• Difficulty following information presented orally
• Poor sense of time (Silverman 2013)

This intelligence challenges the popular belief that mental and physical activity are unrelated (Brualdi, 1996).
People who have high bodily-kinesthetic intelligence should be generally good at physical activities such as sports, dance, acting, and making things. Activities involving using their hands or full body movement.
Some things can only be taught through a hands on experience, e.g. riding a bike
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences theorises the view that individuals are able to possess a certain intelligence relating to their capabilities and skills. These intelligences however, are inbuilt with each person, and every individual has their own strengths within each intelligence (Northern Illinois University, 2015).
The intelligences reflect individual learning styles and comprise of key features that they represent. This can benefit their learning capabilities by being aware of their strengths and weaknesses as well as by establishing which types of activities suit their intelligence. Therefore by being aware of each intelligence a human has, it can allow them to better understand their behaviour and preferred methods of learning.
• Self-reflection and self-discovery
• Problem solving
• Creative expression of inner feelings – art, music, photography, writing in a journal, etc.
(Ostwald Kowald 2014)
• Goal setting
• Daily affirmations
• Meditation (Chapman 2014)
• Self-awareness
• Emotional maturity - can often predict reactions to future situations
• Independence and initiative
• Ability to understand relationship to others and to the world
• Good understanding of own strengths and weaknesses
• Uses reflection and introspection while completing tasks
(Gardner 2006 & 2011)
• May be required to spend large amounts of time alone to effectively complete tasks, affecting social life and/or skills
• Unmotivated to complete tasks if unable to relate them to personal goals
• Difficulty focusing in certain environments - sensitivity to large groups, easily distracted by noise
• Hesitant to make quick decisions due to reflective nature
• May be perceived as too shy or misunderstood by those with contrasting intelligences
(Zamboni n.d.)

Often described as 'self smart', those with the intrapersonal/solitary intelligence have a natural capacity for being in tune with their own feelings, emotions, values, belief systems, and thought processes. This involves knowing oneself with detail and accuracy, and accessing and drawing upon feelings to guide in behaviour and decision making. While they typically work best alone, they can also excel in leadership roles within groups, due to their level of self-assurance (Gardner & Hatch 1989).

(Paper Masters 2012)
(Picture Book Professor, 2013)
(Inborn Talent 2014)


There is an abundance of information available online, therefore it was essential to ensure it is in fact credible. Factors that ensure credibility include, accuracy, authority, objectivity, currency and coverage (Metzger 2007). When seeking sources of information it is best to ensure the author has sound credentials, the information is from a professional organisation, there are links to external sources to back up the information, and that it is current. Sources included Journal articles and informative web-pages that reflect the findings of Howard Gardner, as well as book and articles authored by Gardner himself.

There is an abundance of information available online, therefore it’s essential to ensure it is in fact credible. Factors that ensure credibility include, accuracy, authority, objectivity, currency and coverage (Metzger 2007). When seeking sources of information, it is best to ensure the author has sound credentials and the information is from a professional organisation. Ensuring there are links to external sources to back up the information and that it is current. My sources included Journal articles and informative web-pages that reflect the findings of Developmental Psychologist Howard Gardner, who created these multiple intelligences.

(Buzzle 2015)
The Logical/Mathematical Intelligence is the ability to think conceptually and abstractly, and capacity to discern logical and numerical patterns. (Northern Illinois University 2015)
Consider propositions and hypothesis
Carry out complex mathematical problems
Able to explore differences, patterns and relationships
Work through problems in a systematic way

Recognise patterns and themes easily
Notify connections between meaningless content
Perform complex calculations
Decipher mathematical codes and number sequences

Need to learn and distinguish differences before dealing with details
Difficulty in changing and altering habits
Over-analysing situations
Unable to generalise a situation
(50 Shades of Zen n.d.)
(Carlisle 2015)
(Independent Study Anytime, Anywhere n.d.)
“Musical Intelligence entails skill in the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns” (Gardner 1999, p. 52). The individual learns and creates meaning through the awareness, appreciation, and use of sound (Chapman 2014), be it studying with music playing in the background, noticing non-verbal sounds in the environment, or learning more easily when the information is sung or tapped out (Piper 2003).
singing songs
composing and performing music
making and playing musical instruments
interpreting different musical styles
teaching music to others
experimenting and creating with sounds
responding physically to sound by dancing

Careers may include composers, musicians, singers, producers, voice coaches, or environment and noise advisers (Chapman 2014).

Those with a high Musical Intelligence can easily:
Learn to play musical instruments
Remember and replicate sounds and compositions
Identify different musical styles
Recognise musical tone and pitch
Think in patterns
Invoke a strong emotional response to music that can be used to motivate or recall
Excel in a home school setting

Individuals may have trouble:
Learning in a traditional school environment where music is not present
Developing their talent if not encouraged
Visualising words and pictures
(True Smarts 2011-13)
50 Shades of Zen: How to Meditate For More Results In Less Time n.d., [image], Bulletproof, viewed 15 May 2015, <https://www.bulletproofexec.com/benefits-of-meditation-how-to-meditate/>.

Alexander, B, (n.d), Kinesthetic Learners - How To Help Them Process Information, Classroom Management Success, viewed 28 April 2015, <http://www.classroom-management-success.org/kinesthetic-learners.html>.

Brainboxx 2015, Visual-spatial Intelligence. Viewed 8 May 2015 http://www.brainboxx.co.uk/a1_multiple/pages/visualspatial.htm

‘Bodily’ [image],What kind of intelligence do you have quiz, Blogthings (n.d), visited 9 May 2015, <https://images.blogthings.com/whatkindofintelligencedoyouhavequiz/bodily.jpg>.

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence: Characteristics and Examples [image], Buzzle (2015), visited 9 May 2015, <http://www.buzzle.com/img/articleImages/610327-30716-14.jpg>.

Brualdi, A, C. (1996) Multiple Intelligences: Gardner’s Theory. ERIC Digest, Eric Digests, viewed 26 April 2015, <http://www.ericdigests.org/1998-1/multiple.htm>.

Carlisle, J 2015, [image], Learning Styles, viewed 15 May 2015, <https://www.haikudeck.com/learning-styles-education-presentation-4QKjF6OeSR>.

Chapman, A 2014, Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences, viewed 2 May 2015, <http://www.businessballs.com/howardgardnermultipleintelligences.htm>.

Childcare Education Institute 2015, Promote Development of Visual Intelligence During Healthy Vision Month. Photograph, viewed on 9 May 2015, http://www.cceionline.edu/index.cfm?id=305

'Cropped Image' [image], The talent that defines you, Inborn Talent (2014), visited 9 May 2015, <https://inborntalent.files.wordpress.com/2013/07/cropped-image.jpeg>.

Davis, K., Christodoulou, J., Seider, S., Gardner, H. (2012). The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, viewed 26 April 2015, <https://howardgardner01.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/443-davis-christodoulou-seider-mi-article.pdf>

DCITHAR 2012, Visual Spatial Intelligence, Photograph, viewed 9 May 2015, http://www.dmitindia.in/mi.htm

Gardner, H 1999, Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century, Basic Books, New York.

Gardner, H 2006, Multiple Intelligences: New Horizons in Theory & Practice, Perseus Books, EBL Ebook Library.

Gardner, H 2011, Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, Basic Books, EBL Ebook Library.

Gardner, H. & Hatch, T.; Hatch (1989). Multiple intelligences go to school: Educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences (PDF). Educational Researcher, Vol. 18, No. 8 (Nov., 1989), pp. 4-10, doi:10.3102/0013189X018008004, visited 26 April 2015, < http://www.sfu.ca/~jcnesbit/EDUC220/ThinkPaper/Gardner1989.pdf

Hoekstra-de-Roos, A 2013, Montessori Motion. Viewed 8 May 2015, http://www.international-montessori.org/schools/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/MONTESSORINEWS1-23-FINAL-EN.pdf

Independent Study Anytime, Anywhere n.d., [image], Duke TIP, viewed 12 May 2015, <http://tip.duke.edu/node/141>.

International Centre for Educators' Learning Styles 2015, Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences, viewed 10 May 2015, http://www.icels-educators-for-learning.ca/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=51&Ltemid=66#3

‘Kinesthetic-intelligence’ [image], Paper Masters (2012), visited 9 May 2015, <https://www.papermasters.com/images/kinesthetic-intelligence.jpg>.

Lane, C 2009, Multiple Intelligences, The Distance Learning Technology Resource Guide, viewed 7 May 2015, <http://www.tecweb.org/styles/gardner.html>.

Loggerhead Publishing 2015, Positive Learning Posters, Poster, viewed 9 May 2015, http://www.loggerheadpublishing.net/store/p54/Positive_Learning_Posters_Ref%3A_1-026-K.html

MATHSTHOUGHTBOOK 2015, Logical-Mathematical Reasoning for Teens, viewed 15 May 2015, http://www.mathsthoughtbook.com/logical-mathematical-reasoning-for-teens.html

McKenzie, W 2005, Multiple Intelligences and Instructional Technology, International Society for Technology in Education, Eugene OR.

Metzger, MJ 2007, ‘Making sense of credibility on the web: Models for evaluating online information and recommendations for the future’, Journal of the American Society for Information Science & technology, vol. 58, no.13, pp. 2078-2091, doi:10.1002/asi.20672

Morgan, Kori (2015), Advantages & Disadvantages of Different Learning Styles, Seattle pi, visited 9 May 2015, <http://education.seattlepi.com/advantages-disadvantages-different-learning-styles-3581.html>.

'Music-and-math' [image], Funderstanding, viewed 16 May 2015, <http://www.funderstanding.com/theory/child-development/learning-music-and-math/>.

'Music Brain' [image], Mr Science Show (2009), viewed 16 May 2015, <http://www.mrscienceshow.com/2009/05/ep-105-music-and-intelligence.html>.

Northern Illinois University 2015, Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences, viewed 9 May 2015, http://www.niu.edu/facdev/resources/guide/learning/howard_gardner_theory_multiple_intelligences.pdf

Ostwald Kowald, T 2014, Self-Smarts: Knowing Yourself Is the First Step to Success, viewed 6 May 2015, <http://www.connectionsacademy.com/blog/posts/2014-01-24/Self-Smarts-Knowing-Yourself-Is-the-First-Step-to-Success.aspx>.
Piper, C 2003, The Musical Intelligence, Soundpiper, viewed 15 May 2015, < http://www.soundpiper.com/mln/mi.htm>.

Silverman, LK 2013, Upside-Down Brilliance: The Visual-Spatial learner, viewed 10 May 2015, http://www.negifted.org/NAG/Spring_Conference_files/Upside%20Down%20Brilliance.pdf

Smith, Mark K. (2002, 2008), Howard Gardner and multiple intelligences, the encyclopedia of informal education, visited 22 April 2015, <http://www.infed.org/mobi/howard-gardner-multiple-intelligences-and-education>.

True Smarts 2011-13, Logical-Mathematical Intelligences, viewed 13 May 2015, http://www.truesmarts.com/tag/logical-mathematical-intelligence

Unknown-31 [image], Picture Book Professor, on Pixshark (2013), Kinesthetic Intelligence, visited 9 May 2015, <http://www.picturebookprofessor.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/Unknown-31.jpeg>.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of hands-on learning?, Teachnology (n.d), visited 9 May 2015, <http://www.teach-nology.com/teachers/methods/theories/handson.html>.

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In 1983 the Multiple Intelligence theory was proposed by Developmental Psychologist Howard Gardner to identify the different cognitive strengths and styles of individuals. There are eight distinct intelligences: Spatial, Musical, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Intrapersonal, Logical-Mathematical, Interpersonal, Linguistic, and Naturalist.

The first five intelligences mentioned will be covered in this presentation, exploring key features, advantages, disadvantages, and suited activities to enhance learning.

Gardner's theory aimed not to limit individuals to one modality, but rather to empower them to learn at their fullest capacity (McKenzie 2005).
(Mr Science Show 2009)
(Funderstanding 2011)
• Ability to depict visual images
• Imagination focused on visual imaging
• Connection between images and objects in space
• Good sense of spacial awareness and direction (Brainboxx 2015)
• Completing Jigsaw puzzles
• Painting or illustrating a picture
• Taking photographs
• Construction work
• Working out maps

Creating a process and/or association
Recognising abstract patterns
Situating connections and relationships between separate pieces of information
Making lists and creating a schedule
Logical games
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