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Overview of the Immune system

High School Biology level Immune system
by

Amanda Collins

on 29 April 2014

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Transcript of Overview of the Immune system

THE AMAZING IMMUNE SYSTEM Serum of Microbial Death
How does your immune system protect you from
pathogens
?
Your defense system comes in two forms; a non-specific form and a specific form
Innate: NON-Specific lines of defense:
1st line:
S
KIN
C
ilia
O
IL
S
weat Glands
S
aliva(
LYSOZYME
)
Specific Defenses
If a pathogen breaks through the 1st, non-specific defense barriers then the specific defense system goes into action.
As a matter of fact ALL vertebrates share the same basic Immune system parts as you do.
As a species you have developed a system of protection that ensures that your body is
protected from invading cells and viruses(PATHOGENS)
,
remembers those pathogens
and
identifies cancer as an invasion.
Evolutionarily speaking
The immune system
A form of defense that does not discriminate
A.K.A: Innate Immunity
A form of defense that does discriminate
A.K.A Acquired or Adaptive immunity
NON-SPECIFIC, 1st line
2nd line of defense:
(Is needed when a pathogen manages to make it past the first line)

This triggers an Inflammatory response:
A response to a breach in the 1st line.
NON-SPECIFIC 2nd line
Inflammatory response
1. Releases histamines:
Triggers dilation of capillaries (increases blood flow)
aids in clotting and delivers PHAGOCYTIC
cells to the injured area.
Increases mucus production in the respiratory system
2. Fever
Increases blood flow to ensure that PHAGOCYTIC cells get to the infected site quickly
Destroys pathogens that can not survive in high temperatures
NOTE:
Phagocytic
cells are a type of white blood cell that ingests and destroys invading pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and fungus
Note: A
pathogen
is simply defined as a disease causing agent
.
Trypanosoma
Fungi
Bacteria
V
i
r
u
s
e
s
Worms
Specific
The chemical agent that triggers this IMMUNE RESPONSE is referred to as an
ANTIGEN.
NOTE: All
pathogens
serve as
antigens,
additionally, chemical signals and parts of destroyed pathogens can also be used as an
antigen
.
TWO CELLS SERVE AS SPECIFIC ANTIGEN IDENTIFIERS:
B (lymphocytes)CELLS
AND
T (lymphocytes) CELLS
Humoral immunity key player
cell-mediated immunity key player
NOTE:
Swelling, redness, and pain are often symptoms of this response
Objective 1: Introduce the complex
defenses
of the Immune System.
FOCUS:
Pathogens,

Antigens
,
Antibodies
,
White Blood Cells (Leukocytes), and
Immunity (both Humoral and Acquired)
Objective 2: Introduce Immune system disorders:
Focus:
allergies
,
AIDS
,
the flu
.
WHY do we need an immune system?
What does the IMMUNE SYSTEM do?
What is a pathogen?
Humoral Immunity and Antigens
The Humoral response is the response that triggers
antibodies.

Antibodies made by

B-cells
"tag" anitgens as "BAD GUYS" .

These "tags" are the signals for phagocytes to recognize and kill.
B-Cells

1. Triggered by an antigen
2. Clone
a. 1 clone produces a
plasma cell
which releases antigen identifying antibodies to fight the infection.
b. 1 clone is a
memory B cell
this cell remembers the antigen and greatly reduces the chance of a second infection by the same antigen.
NOTE:
B-CELLS
Antibodies:
Proteins that recognize and bind to antigens.
Each antibody has two identical antigen binding sites.
Note:
Cell mediated immunity and Antigens
Identifies cells that have been infected
A macrophage PRESENTS antigens to the T-Cell and
ACTIVATES
it.
1. Once activated the now
HELPER T-CELL
wi
l
l create a
KILLER (cytotoxic T cell)
or will create
MEMORY T CELLS
.
2. OR... I will activate a B cell which will create antibodies.
FYI: ALLERGIES....
Are you allergic to anything?
Do you have to be careful near peanuts, bees, cats, dogs, etc?...
IF SO...
YOU have an immune system that overreacts! In other words your immune system thinks it has to fight a battle when actually it does not. When this overreaction occurs a release in
histamines
triggers an
inflammatory response
that in some cases may be a serious health threat or even deadly.
YIKES! That lives inside you!
EWW! A protist
OK, That's it! I'm officially grossed out.
YIKES!
THE HORROR!!!

1. A disease causing agent is known as a(n)
a. antibody
b. antigen
c. pathogen
d. histamine
CHECKPOINT:
CHECKPOINT
2. A nonspecific defense reaction to tissue damage caused by injury or infection is known as
a. the inflammatory response
b. active immunity
c. cell-mediated immunity
d. none of the above
CHECKPOINT
3. Phagocytes are...
a. red blood cells that engulf pathogens
b. white blood cells that engulf pathogen
c. bacteria cells that cause infections
d. bacteria cells that help you fight infections.
HIV
and
AIDS:
H
uman
I
mmunodeficiency
V
irus targets and invades HELPER T-cells.
If helper T-cells are too busy making new viruses they cannot focus on fighting the bodies infections.
AIDS
:
A
cquired
I
mmuno
d
eficiency
S
yndrome
is the disease

that occurs when the HIV virus begins kill helper T-cells, reducing your bodies ability to fight diseases.
AIDS patients tend to suffer more than healthy individuals from simple, beatable pathogens because their immune system is weak and unable to fight off the infection.
Checkpoint
4. Allergy causing agents enter the body and trigger an immune response. Part of this response is to release a chemical known as a histamine. Which of the following is a job of the histamine chemical?
a. to increase blood flow to the area
b. to increase mucus production in the respiratory system
c. to produce antibodies
d. both a and b are correct.
Checkpoint
5. All of the following are first line barriers against infectious agents EXCEPT?
a. skin
b. cilia
c. saliva
d. phagocytes
Checkpoint
6. Antibodies are created as a result of which type of immune response?
a. cell-mediated
b. humoral
c. non-specific
d. none of the above
Checkpoint
7. Antibodies are..
a. lipids that respond to antigens in the bloodstream.
b. proteins that respond to antigens in the bloodstream and tag them as invaders.
c. proteins that release chemical signals that activate nearby cells.
d. are lipids that store energy for fighting diseases.
Checkpoint
8. T-cells provide defense against
a. extracellular pathogens
b. floating pathogens in the bloodstream
c. pathogens in infected cells
d. pathogens on the surface of the skin.
What's a phagocyte?
Passive Immunity
Vs.
Active Immunity
Active immunity
is the type of immunity produced by exposure to an ANTIGEN... either through vaccinations that contain a weakened form of the pathogen/antigen or through natural exposure to an antigen.
Passive Immunity
is a type of short term immunity that occurs when antibodies produced by other animals are introduced to the body so that that body may fight an infection. Some vaccines contain actual antibodies, these vaccines protect an individual for only a short period of time and do not prompt the body to make its own antibodies.
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