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Haiti Earthquake vs Loma Prieta Earthquake

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nicole calcutta

on 16 October 2013

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Transcript of Haiti Earthquake vs Loma Prieta Earthquake

Causes
The North Caribbean Plate, on a transform plate boundary with the North American Plate built up friction.
This friction was released on the left-lateral strike-slip faulting on the Enriquillo- Plaintain Garden fault.
The soft ground amplifies the shaking, and increased the destruction of the buildings built on it.
Initial earthquake occurred 6.2 miles under the earth’s surface. The shaking from the relatively shallow earthquakes are more severe.
People Affected
Over 316,000 deaths
300,000 injured
1.3 million homeless
97,294 houses destroyed
188,383 homes were destroyed in Port-au-Prince areas and in southern Haiti.
Loma Prieta
Point of Origin: Santa Cruz Mountains
Time: 5:04 pm
Magnitude: 6.9
Aftershocks: Around 300
Causalities: 62

Loma Prieta
The cause of the Loma Prieta earthquake was a slip along the San Andreas fault. The fault is in between the Pacific Plate to the west and the North American Plate to the east.
Causes
Economic Impact
Small business impact and businesses began operation shortly after the quake or the following day.
Larger companies suffered less to none than smaller companies b/c they had multibranch firms, better developed level of administrative structure, and implemented an emergency response program.
Earthquake was centered away from the most populous portions of Northern California.
The economic diversity of the region and geographic dispersal of the regions economy made it possible for many businesses to continue to operate.
Damages
Damage to public buildings: $2.3 billion
Damage to private buildings: $3.3 billion
Total number of buildings damaged: Over 25,000
Total number of buildings destroyed: Over 1,500
Total number of deaths: 62
Total number of shelter nights: 40,000
Effect on Transportation and Life Style
San Francisco-Oakland Bridge: 50-foot long upper deck sections collapsed into the lower deck, resulting in one fatality and the closure of the bridge for over one and one-half months.
Two-level Cypresss Street Viaduct along the Nimitz Freeway caused 40 fatalities and estimated to cost 200 million to repair.
Other Transportations/Lifelines effected: Bay Area Rapid Transit, Ferries, State Route 17, Airports, Natural Gas Systems, Electric Power Systems, Sewer and Wastewater Systems.
Natural and Geological Damage
-Geological damage- More than 1,000 landslides and rockfalls occurred just in the Santa Cruz mountains. Other towns were affected as well such as Los Gatos, Hollister, and Watsonville.
-Many homes in SF were severely damaged because they were built on loose soil, permeated with water resulting in Liquefaction.

Liquefaction
A process whereby the shaking and weight of the buildings causes water to be squeezed out from the soil. The soil then turns into a quicksand temporarily. So when liquefaction occurs it's a possibility for buildings to topple over or collapse.
HAITI
Earthquake 2010
Loma Prieta Vs Haiti
Magnitude: 6.9
Cost of Damages: Over 6 Billion
Causalities: 62 deaths
4,000 injured
Earthquake Preparation: More Developed
Earthquake Resistant
Population Density: Over 700,000
Magnitude: 7.0
Cost of Damages: 14 Billion
Causalities: 316, 000 dead
300,000 injured
Earthquake Preparation: Not Developed/Advanced
Population Density: 9.6 million
LOMA PRIETA
EARTHQUAKE
1989
Hati Earthquake
Date: Tuesday, January 12 2010
Time:21:53
Point of Origin: 15 miles for Port-au-Prince
Magnitude: 7.0
Aftershocks: 59
Affected: Over 3 Million people
Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, ranking at 145 out of 169 on the UN Human Development Index

Haiti's limited history of large earthquakes left it unprepared for the 2010 earthquake.

The country possesses has no seismic network and has only a few seismologists and one seismic hazard map that was outdated and lacked sufficient detail to be useful.

Building codes were outdated, rarely used and there were no contingency plans in effect for earthquakes.

There were no curriculum offered that included seismic design, seismology or geosciences.
Haiti before...
• Located on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola
• More than 70% of people in Haiti were living on less than 2 $USD per day
• 86% of people in Port au Prince were living in slum conditions - mostly tightly-packed, poorly-built, concrete buildings.
• 80% of education in Haiti was provided in often poor-quality private schools, the state system generally provided better education but provided far too few places
• Half of people in Port-au-Prince had no access to latrines and only one-third has access to tap water.
Post Earthquake
Jan 2010 U.N launched a flash appeal for 575 million. In February, they received 1.44 Billion dollars to help fund Haiti relief.
The relief effort has been criticized for not its lack of coordination.
Chronic government corruption and many non-governmental organizations have set their own priorities, which leaves little work on rebuilding and restoring Haiti
In addition:
Some 350,000 displaced Haitians still live in squalid tent camps
U.N. peacekeepers are allegedly responsible for a cholera epidemic
Unemployment continues to top 70%
Preventative Measures
PADF (Pan American Development Foundation) and the Taiwan Launch Innovative High-Technology Disaster Mitigation Project in Haiti
A 25 million dollar innovative crisis and risk prevention intervention that melds high-technology innovation with low-tech solutions to reduce the impact of natural disasters. Mapping the vulnerable communities with handheld GPS, the six month project identified weaknesses in the immediate environment which represent imminent threats.
This initiative will develop a monitoring process to ensure the preparation of the pre-disaster and post-disaster actions as well as coordinate cross-boarder mitigation activities.
Damage Done
Landslides
Building collapses
Due to poor construction and inadequate regulations, many of Port-au-Prince's buildings were not built to withstand high magnitude earthquakes.
Tsunamis
Several small Tsunamis were created as a result of the earthquake and its 59 aftershocks.
Works Cited
DesRoches, Overview of 2010 Haiti Earthquake, Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 27. No S1 S1-S21, October 2011
Earthquake Hazards Program
Earthquake Information for 2010
NASA
"Earthquakes--Loma Prieta--Forces of Nature-(National Geographic)." Earthquakes- N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Oct. 2013.
"Loma Prieta Earthquake - 20th Anniversary (1989-2009). Web. 9 Oct. 2013.
"October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake." N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Oct. 2013.
"Faultline: 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake | Exploratorium." Faultline: 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake | Exploratorium. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Oct. 2013.
"October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake." October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2013.
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