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Transcript of Climate Change
Atmospheric carbon-dioxide increase
"Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and since the 1950s, many of the observed changes are unprecedented over decades to millennia. The atmosphere and ocean have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished, sea level has risen, and the concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased."
"It is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century."
97% of the scientists agree that climate change is human caused
Colonisation of continents
Deforestation and land clearance have lead to the removal of natural carbon sinks
Transition to new manufacturing processes and technical development started in the late 1700s in England
Increasing demand on natural resources...
Hurricane Katrina 2005:
$108 billion damage
Hurricane Sandy 2012:
$68 billion damage
Typhoon Haiyan 2013:
Category 5 superstorm
Arctic sea ice decline
Reduced planetary albedo - reflectivity
When dissolved atmospheric carbon-dioxide reacts with water, carbonic acid is formed
Carbonic acid quickly dissociates into bicarbonate and hydrogen ion
Hydrogen ion then bonds with carbonate ion
The more hydrogen ion is present in the water, the less carbonate ion is available for calcifying organism to form their calcium carbonate shells
0.1 unit decrease of ocean pH = 30% increase of hydrogen ion /atmospheric carbon-dioxide
Planktons, shellfish and coral reefs may form weaker shells ("dissolution")
Disturbance of fish behaviour - loss of "hearing" in clown fish
Observed loss of muscle mass in brittle star
Squids may suffer from acidosis
Warming of Arctic may lead to reduced temperature and pressure differences between the high and mid latitudes
Stronger meandering of the jet stream allows cold Arctic air to move over parts of North American and Russia
....coupled with increasing energy demand
Sea-level rise is not uniform: regional differences occur due to ocean currents and wind force
Gravitational effects: large landmasses pull water
Land areas are still rising since the last Ice Age (Scandinavia - Weichsel glaciation)
Thermal expansion of seawater
Greenland and Antarctic continental ice loss
Average global sea-level rise: 20cm (projected rise 2m by 2100)
Effected areas are low-lying countries and populated coastal cities such as:
North Atlantic winter storms
Shift to renewable/clean energy provider
Efficient energy use: unplug, cycle
Reduce, reuse, recycle, refuse
Collect facts and information on climate and environmental change - but be critical!
Conscious purchase of groceries and goods
The Antarctica Paradox
An increase in sea ice extent have been observed around the Antarctic continent.
Globally, temperatures have increased. Warmer air can hold more moist than cold air consequently, on the Antarctica increased amount of snow accumulation is observed.
Due to the ozone hole, the atmosphere above Antarctica has cooled. This cooling allowed the development of stronger winds. The stronger circumpolar winds are able to blow sea ice outward, which may explain the increasing sea ice extent.
Nevertheless, the Antarctic continent as a whole has been warming.
Ho Chi Minh City
Extreme weather events
Wet areas will become wetter and dry areas drier
Floods, increasing frequency of heat waves: forest fires, droughts and water shortage
Cumulative impact on agriculture and food production
IPCC Fifth Assessment Report
Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4°C Warmer World Must be Avoided
The consensus project
Rider, Christine, ed. Encyclopedia of the Age of the Industrial Revolution, 1700–1920 (2 vol. 2007)
The University of Michigan's Global Change Curriculum
UN World Population Prospects
The Keeling curve (keelingcurve.ucsd.edu)
Mann, Michael E.; Bradley, Raymond S.; Hughes, Malcolm K. (1999), "Northern hemisphere temperatures during the past millennium: Inferences, uncertainties, and limitations", Geophysical Research Letters 26 (6): 759
Ben Birchall/PA, Annabel May Oakley-Watson/REX
TERRA MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer)
Australian Government: Bureau of Meterology
The Economist (http://www.economist.com/node/21524864)
Feely R. A., Sabine C. L., Lee K., Berelson W., Kleypas J., Fabry, V. J., & F. J. Millero (2004). Impact of anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO2 system in the ocean. Science 305, 362–366.
Riebesell U, Zondervan I, Rost B, Tortell P D, Zeebe R & Morel F M (2000). Reduced calcification of marine plankton in response to increased atmospheric CO2. Nature 407, 364–367.
Royal Society (2005). Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Policy document 12/05 Royal Society: London. The Clyvedon Press Ltd, Cardiff, UK, 68pp
S. D. Simpson, P. L. Munday, M. L. Wittenrich, R. Manassa, D. L. Dixson, M. Gagliano, H. Y. Yan. Ocean acidification erodes crucial auditory behaviour in a marine fish. Biology Letters, 2011
"Copenhagen Accord". U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change. United Nations
Cyclone Yasi 2011:
$3.5 billion damage
Fossil fuel use: coal, natural gas, petroleum
Coral reefs provide home for 25% of marine species
Increased seawater temperature: loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae - bleaching
Loss of marine habitat, loss of biodiversity
Global temperature increase