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Anatomy Lecture 2

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on 29 October 2013

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Transcript of Anatomy Lecture 2

Anatomy Lecture 2
Functions of human skeleton (momkn yegy so2al essay fe el emt7an)
Gives specific shape of the body. (internal shape)
Protection of vital organs. (such as lungs in ribs)
Attachment of muscles.
Formation of joints.
Transmission of body weight. (each leg carry equivalent weight and each toe of the one leg carry equivalent weight)
Bone marrow.
Store of calcium (thats why in X ray bones appear white)
Classification of bones
According to Shape (main type of calssification)
be el 3rby kda bteegy fe el emt7an :P
According to development
Membrane Bone. (Fast process)

Mesoderm (cells which form bones) form cartilage with the same shape of bone deposition of bone cells. (Slow process)
According to position:
Axial skeleton bone in the middle

Appendicular skelton bones in the extremities
Long bone
It consists of upper and lower epiphysis and between them is named diaphysis ,, the point of connection between diaphysis and epiphysis is called metaphysis

There is a small cartilage between epiphysis and diaphysis called epiphysial plate ,, this where the bone grows from ,, when this plate is completely transferred from cartilage to bone ,, the bone growth stops.

The outer surface is called periostium this is where the bone grows horizontolly.

Short bone
Wrist bone from outside outer compact layer and from inside spongy bones,
Corbal and torsal bones are examples of short bones.
Has many projections and processes
E.g : Vertbrae
Irregular bone
Large, flat and has two layers between them spongy bones.
Has large surface area beacuse of muscles attached to it
E.g : Scapula, sternum, ribs.
Flat bone
Bone that are opened from inside (mtfr8)
E.g : paranasal sinuses (el gyoob el anfya) from the skull and open in the nose.
Black areas in X ray resembles air and if it is white then it indicates that fluid is present.
Pnumatic bone
Bony nodules embedded in the tendons of the muscles
E.g : Knee bone. (patela) , it is the largest sesamoid bone.
Sesamoid bone
(3ezam smsmya)
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