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criminal profiling 2
Transcript of criminal profiling 2
So what is it?
Criminal profiling is the process of investigating a crime / crime scene in order to construct a ‘profile’ about the possible offender of a crime
The ‘profile’ is some sort of an insight on the assumed psychological state, personality and temperament of the criminal. It also gives some sort of physical description of the criminal.
"...this is how we do it"
Profiles are created by:
-studying a crime scene to find behaviour patterns of the criminal that may be evident
-by studying the crime scene, the criminal is categorised into a 'typology' (a broad group of criminals that all have similar characteristics).
"Do you see what i see?"
What criminal profilers look for in a crime scene :
this is something that a criminal will do during a crime to satisfy their emotional state.
[ie. leaving a mark or symbol]
State of the
this gives clues as to the ‘type’ of criminal the offender is (organized or disorganized), as well as the age, race, gender and motive of the offender
-This refers to how a criminal will act with people in non-criminal situations. [Are they social? Anti-social? Rude, polite, etc.]
-The way a criminal treats their victim is
a good indication of how they act in everyday life.
Time and Place
remember that the time and place of a crime is chosen by the criminal, and can give a profiler clues as to what the criminal’s schedule is, perhaps where they live, and their mobility.
this refers to the criminals 'awareness' of the crime scene. Have they attempted to remove any physical evidence from the crime scene? Have they worn gloves so that there are no fingerprints, etc.?
identifying whether the criminal was involved in another criminal activity prior to the crime taking place
Step by Step
When creating a profile, there are four
steps a profiler will follow:
3. VICTIM ANALYSIS
4. MOTIVE ANALYSIS
-possible motives are
ways to profile
-less common and less accurate
-requires no specialized training
-relies on generalisations and statistics about criminals
-set of behaviours that suggest an overall pattern of actions or emotions that point to a condition
-when using inductive, the behaviour of the criminal is compared to other criminals who have been identified as having the same behaviours
-produces are very generalised. Profile based on other criminals studied in the past
-uses less reliable sources of information such as interviews, practical experiences that differ from one profiler to another, and public data resource, even NEWSPAPER articles!
-looks at each criminal individually
-relies more on forensics
-more successful and popular
-focuses more on the pattern of criminal’s behaviour patterns
-interprets forensic evidence to accurately reconstruct specific offender behaviours, characteristics , emotions and motivations
*crime scene characteristics
*offender characteristics (physical build, whether they feel remorse, criminal history, etc.)
*victimology (study of victim to determine offenders personality)
*modus operandi (behaviours needed to commit the crime)
"He's just not really my type"
Killlers can be categorised into three categories or 'typologies'. These three main Typologies are...
The Lust Killer
-lust murderers will act on fantasies
-mutilation / destroying / displacement of sexual regions of victims.
-This mutilation results in Sadism (arousal derived from the suffering of others)
-Jeffrey Dahmer proved that lust killers can be organized or disorganized.
Example of this Typology
HOW? he tortured his victims while they were alive (which indicated controlled rage), whereas a disorganized lust murderer would have immediately killed the victim or knocked them out before engaging in the sexual act.
The Organized Killer
-follow media coverage of their crimes, at times, even going so far as contacting police (jack the ripper) as they like being above the law
-above average in intelligence and very methodical
-generally motive is achieving sexual satisfaction or a feeling of dominance
-plan out their crimes very carefully
-are aware of evidence collecting techniques used by police, and plan around this
-many organized killers are ‘smooth talkers’
Example of this Typology
-Bundy's victims were usually similar in some way, and he selected victims he was confident he could control and manipulate
-they will usually torture their victims, and take a body part as a ‘souvenir’ of their crime. Sometimes they might film the crime to re-watch it
The Disorganized Killer
-often below average in intelligence and socially inept
-act impulsively as shown through ‘cluttered’ crime scenes and the disorganisation of their crimes
-generally ‘loners’, who make up for their lack of social interaction with a fantasy life
-act fast, furiously, and overly violently
-crime scene will be cluttered and most evidence will remain un-tampered with as killers are not conscious of the contaminations they have left at the crime scene
1. GENERAL CRIME SCENE ANALYSIS
-the crime scene is investigated to determine the 'type' of crime
-comparisons are made to similar
crimes from the past
2. IN DEPTH ANALYSIS OF CRIME SCENE
-evidence is collected
-any information regarding the crime is collected
-simply collecting ANY information available about the crime that may be useful
-victim's background is researched
-victim's activities are analysed [ie. daily routine, etc]
-possible motives and connections to the criminal are made
-interviews of friends/family of victim
5. CRIMINAL PROFILE
-description of the possible offended is developed
-physical information is given
-also, any information about the criminal's possible
mental state is provided
-any information on previous criminal history