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Alpine Tundra

AP Biology Ecology Project
by

Ashly Angel Roma

on 1 May 2013

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Transcript of Alpine Tundra

By Heaven Thompson
&
Ashly Angel Roma The Alpine Tundra Tropic Pyramid Below the soil is the tundra's permafrost, a permanently frozen layer of earth. The ground is permanently frozen 10 inches to 3 feet (25 to 100 cm) down so that trees can't grow there.

The tundra is the world's coldest and driest biomes. The average annual temperature is -18° F (-28° C). Temperatures can get up to 54° F (12° C), but it can get as cold as 37° F (3° C). Average summer temperatures range from 37° to 60°F (3° to 16°C).

The tundra is basically like a desert when it comes to precipitation. Only about 6 - 10 inches of precipitation (mostly snow) fall each year. Energetic Hypothesis: The length of a food chain is limited by the inefficiency of energy transfer along the chain
Example: Snowy owls eat both lemmings and insects, which eat various plants. The energy from the plants is transferred through the lemming and insect to the snowy owl. Temperature & Rainfall Alpine Tundra Food Chain Dynamic stability hypothesis: In long food chains, diet changes can occur through ecological phenomenons: deaths of animals, migration and so on.
Example: If arctic foxes become extinct, bears and wolves would have to compete for the snowy owl. They may also eat lemmings and arctic hares.
Population fluctuations are magnified at higher levels versus lower levels A keystone species is a species that
has a disproportionate effect on its
environment relative to its biomass. In ecology, a foundation species is a dominant primary producer in an
ecosystem both in terms of abundance
and influence. Arthropod Strigiformes Protozoan Tetrapod Temperature: (usually below freezing). As elevation increases, every 1000 meters the temperature drops 10 degrees.
-Temperature can affect the phosphorus and water cycle due to the freezing temperatures. Precipitation: (rain, hail and snow fall). The average precipitation is around one hundred inches per year, however most of the time it is in the form of snow.
-Precipitation also affects the phosphorus and water cycle, when it is raining it can benefit those cycles, however since there is minimum sunlight it is very hard to complete the cycles. Seasons: (very long winters and short summers). Summer usually lasts from June to September at about 10 to 15 degrees Celsius. In the winter it goes from October to May at below freezing temperatures.
-Seasons can affect the carbon and nitrogen cycle because when it snows in the winter everything is frozen. Eliminating the trees ability to preform cellular respiration and disabling the plants. Altitude: (pH level is salinity in the soil). The alpine tundra is at the altitude of 10,000 feet is right below the snow line of the mountains.
-Altitude can affect the water, phosphorus, and carbon cycle because the cycle includes involvement with land in which the plants reside. If there was an alteration involving abiotic factors such as: precipitation and temperature it would allow the cycles to regenerate and actually be completed due to the Alpine Tundra's permafrost.. Increased temperatures would allow the water cycle to preform evaporation and condensation. A way to increase temperature, would be caused by global warming. Global Warming can cause the ice caps to melt, which could benefit the cycles. The effect of removing a biotic factor such as soil, would manipulate the entire food chain cycle. If there is NO soil to increase the growth of grass, then all other biotic factors will die or migrate in order to find food. K Selection: populations produce relatively few offspring that have a good chance of survival due to high potential care.
-EX. White Wolfs, and Snow Owls, and Artic Fox. R Selection: exponential growth, quick reproduction and maturity, and produces many offspring.
-EX. Insects, and Rock Ptarmigan. ABIOTIC FACTORS Changing in Abiotic Factors Changes in Biotic Factors Eliminating Permafrost would allow the trees, and their leaves to grow. Temperature: The temperature is very dry, and cold year around. Therefore if the temperature was to rise then plants and flowers would grow, and it would enable the water cycle to begin. Citations:
http://www.tundraanimals.net/tundraanimals/muskox.html
"Alpine Animals." Blue Planet Biomes. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/alpine
"Alpine Tundra Biome." The Wild Classroom: Biology Videos and Podcasting via Ecogeeks. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <http://www.thewildclassroom.com/biomes
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