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Revolutions 1820-1848

Europe post Napoleon

sean meade

on 14 January 2015

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Transcript of Revolutions 1820-1848

Frederick William IV
Habsburg Empire
Issue of Nationalism

July Revolution
Deposed Charles X
Charles X
Louis Philippe
Celebrating Liberty using
Romantic style
Liberty Leading the People
-Bad Harvests 1845/6
(Remember Ireland)
-Unemployment, financial crisis
-Stubborn Inaction of Louis Philippe's
the "Bourgeoisie Monarchy"
-Lack of legislation
-Complacent chief minister, Francois Guizot

-Vote increased from 100,000 to 200,000
so only the rich
-Electoral reform refused
-Barricades 2/22
-L.P. abdicated for Grandson 2/24
-People proclaim a Provisional Republic
-Constitution of 2nd Republic
-10 Men executive
-All men could vote
-End Slavery in colonies
-No death penalty
-10 Hour work day
Moderates- universal suffrage was enough
Radicals- Critical of Capitalism, for individualism and utopian society, appalled at poverty and urban poor, committed to socialism

Depression, unemployment increased
Lous Blanc and Worker Albert
-Pressed for socialist right to work
*Cooperative workshops (not capitalistic)
Temporary relief
Flood to Paris for National Workshops that were created. 10,000 in March 120,000 by June w/ 80,000 w/o jobs
Elections- April:
New Constituent Assembly
500 Moderate Republicans (Alexis de Tocqueville)
300 Monarchists
100 Radical Socialist
-Violent Reaction from Peasants, Middle, and Upper class
Louis Blanc dropped from Exec. Comm.
Workers invaded Constituent Assembly
National Guard suppressed the uprising**
6/22 Workshops dissolved
Either work in provinces or join the army
Class war** Barricades, Violence***
JUNE DAYS- 10,000 killed/wounded
General Louis Cavaignac was victorius
*+* Louis Napoleon was a landslide victory in 12/1848
Propertied class wanted order
-Semi Authoritarian
-Demand for liberal constitution
-Revolt of workers, students, middle class liberals, peasants
Monarch, aristocracy, and the regular army recover nerve and
reassert authority
-Demand Nationalism
Louis Kossuth
-National Autonomy
-Full Civil Liberties
-Universal Suffrage
Greece fought
the Ottoman Empire
-The Western powers helped with thier navies
-Russia gained some access and protectorate of regions in the Balkans!!
No reaction:
Then- Peasant disorder and new Viennes Student worker demands 3/13
Habsburg Ferdinand I capitulated;
Promised reforms, liberal constitution
*** Metternich fled to London
Unstable coalition
3/20Serfdom Abolished- peasants happy (-: LOST INTEREST
Now most peasants a possible ally, especially those in army
**Conflicting National Aspirations:
Hungary- Liberal Democracy, widespread voting, civil liberties, end fuedal obligations. Nationalism
-+*Minority groups saw unification as unacceptable; Croats, Serbs, Romanians, etc
Bohemia based, Prague
Led by Palacky (Historian)
Conflict with German Nationals
+ Urban workers act as radical as French
Split: Middle Class and Socialists
Socialist workshops, (burshcenshaften), and universal male suffrage
Sophia, Archduchess, rallied forces of Aristocracy (Aunt of Otto in Greece)
Crushed the rebellion
Ferdinand I abdicated
Franz Joseph, son of Sophia inherits, crowned 12/1848
Nobles and Church agreed
** Prince Alfred Windischgratz bombarded Prague 6/17
Crushed the revolt
July 1848 N. Italy pacified with army
October Vienna retaken, 4,000 casualties

Hungary- the army struggled, so Russia w/ Nicholas Ient a hand
6/6/1849 130,00o troops
Hungary ruled as conquered country until 1866

Constitution, liberalism, 38 states (klein oder gross)
Middle Class: Pro liberal constituional monarchy
Influenced by fall of L.P. in France
Berlin- Not Granted
FW IV, insane, vacillated
Forced to salute corpses
Caved in on 3/21- Promis of L. Const.
2 businessmen from the Rhineland to form a gov't
-Workers want more!! : Universal voting, ministry of labor
minimum wage, 10 hr work day (3/26/1848). Scared Middle class!!
-Aristocracy, wanted less (Otto von Bismarck joined)

Assembly to write a constitution

Frankfurt Assembly 5/18 820 men, 200 lawyers, 100 professors, 140 businessmen,
judges, officials, doctors, etc.

Denmark (Schleswig and Holstein an issue); Holstein mostly German, ruled by Frederick VII.
He wanted to incorporate them. German revolt
Called for Prussia to stop Denmark.
Liberal Constitution
Elect FW IV as emperor w/o Pr. or Austria
Authoritarian assertion of power
Disbanded Prussian Constituent Assembly
**Limited Constitution, reasserted divine right
He would not accept a "crown from the gutter"
Prussia renounced claim to unify
Confederation re-established
Ferdinand VII
July Monarchy of Louis Philippe
-Orlean branch of Bourbon family
-Fought in 1792 Revolutionary army
"King of the French People" symbolic
also "Citizen King" and "Bourgeoisie Monarchy"
Suffrage extended from 100K-170,000
Moderate liberals dominate
-Chief Minister Guizot: Arrogance and
insensitivity- "enriche vous"
Issues: Constitutionalism
-need for a Constitution
Other Issues:
Nationalism and Multinationalism
-a key issue for Austria
Secret Societies
-desire for a national liberal state

Moderate Liberals and Constitutional
Nationalism and republicanism

-Social agenda of Liberals
-Social problems of Capitalism
Charles X, brother of Louis XVI
and Louis XVIII
-Emigres property was restored
-Censored the Press
-Church gained greater control of education
-Dissolved new Chamber of Deputies which many Liberals had won election to
-Deprived rich Bourgeoisie the right to vot
-Curbed the press.
Rebellion of Bourgeoisie, Students, Workers
led to
Abdication in favor of
Louis Philippe
-Over speculation, business failures,
unemployment, reduced wages

Selfish, entrenched, unresponsive,
cracked down on radials, assassination

50 Killed when Guizot was dismissed,
who said; get rich, then you can vote

Radical Republicans
-critical of capitalism
-support of utopian societies
-appalled at poverty and urban poor
-committed to socialism
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