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EMC Week 4

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by

Tom Lunt

on 9 February 2016

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Transcript of EMC Week 4

Events as services - measuring quality
LT5063 Event Management Consultancy
Summary
Analysing the service/experience
to examine Goffman's theories in particular dramaturgy
to explore the use of drama/theatre as a lens for the analysis of behavior at events
to use service mapping & blue print methods to evaluate event quality
Learning Objectives
...service performance
Management
Functions
Rehearsal/
Practice
Secondary
Support
Firm's back region
Firm's front region
Personal
front
Defensive
practices
Impression
management
Impression
Management
Personal
front
Protective
Practices
Rehearsal/
Practice
Secondary
Support
Management
Functions
Performance
Physical

setting
Audience's
front region
Audience's
back region
Grove, S. J., & Fisk, R. P. (1992). The Service Experience as Theater. Advances In Consumer Research, 19(1), 455-461
The service experience as theatre
Grove & Fisk (1992:458)
Grove & Fisk (1992) drew on the Goffman's sociological concept of dramaturgy which is derived from the Symbolic Interactionalist School of Sociology
Physical evidence






Customer actions



Visible staff contacts







Invisible management
processes
No signs to
location
Approach event
location
Enter controlled
area
Public parking
VIP parking
Walk to site
Shuttle bus to site
Site orientation
Confusing signs
Traffic control
Buses on road
Some congestion
Park in fields
Car/pedestrian conflict
Climb steep stairs
No directional signs
No entrance
Flags and signs of sponsors abundant
Temporary structures
Vehicles and equipment
Public address announcements
Food smells
On-site experiences
Depart
Car/pedestrian conflicts
Minor traffic congestion
Queues for return bus
Pre-event marketing
and ticketing
Volunteer recruitment
Liaison with police & local
authority
Hire buses
Create signs
Parking/security
Staff
Bus drivers
No greeters
Vendors & spectators
(Getz et al., 2001:387)Getz, D., O’Neill, M., Carlsen, J., 2001. Service Quality Evaluation at Events through Service Mapping. Journal of Travel Research 39, 380–390.
Service Mapping - approach and orientation
1. Identify key activities in creating and delivering service

2. Define “big picture” before “drilling down” to obtain a higher level of detail

3. Distinguish between “front stage” and “backstage”

4. Clarify interactions between customers and staff, and support by backstage activities and systems

5. Identify potential fail points; take preventive measures; prepare contingency

6. Develop standards for execution of each activities:

Times for task completion

Maximum wait times

Scripts to guide interactions between employees and customers
Developing a service blueprint
1.Defined standards for front-stage activities

2. Specific physical evidence

3. Principal customer actions defined

4. Line of interaction (customers and front-stage personnel)

5. Front-stage actions by customer-contact personnel

6. Line of visibility (between front stage and backstage)

7. Backstage actions by customer contact personnel

8. Support processes involving other service personnel

9. Support processes involving IT
Key Characteristics of a blueprint
OTSU....
(Gibson, 2012)
Gibson, O., 2012. London 2012: Athletes’ friends and family ticket system to be overhauled [WWW Document]. The Guardian. URL http://www.guardian.co.uk/sport/2012/jul/30/london-2012-families-tickets (accessed 3.2.13).
Analysis reveals opportunities for failure proofing

Need fail-safe methods for both employees and customers

Goal of fail-safe procedures is to prevent errors such as:

Performing tasks incorrectly, in the wrong order, too slowly
Doing work that wasn’t requested in the first place
Reducing service failures
1. Design high standards for each step to satisfy and delight:
Time parameters, correct performance, prescriptions for style and demeanor

2. First impressions affect customer’s evaluations of quality during later stages of service delivery

3. Customer perceptions of service experiences tend to be cumulative

4. For low-contact service, a single failure committed front stage is relatively more serious than in high-contact service
Setting service standards
1. Revitalizes process that has become outdated

2. Changes in external environment make existing practices obsolete and require redesign of underlying processes

3. Rusting occurs internally

4. Opportunities exist to achieve a quantum leap in productivity and service quality
Potential of Service Re-design
Key Measures =
Service failure
Cycle time
Productivity
Customer satisfaction
Eliminating non-value-adding steps
Shifting to self-service
Delivering direct service
Bundling services
Redesigning the physical aspects of service processes
Main approaches
- Link between conceptual ideas and practical applications
- This could be a good way to approach evaluation paper
- Be aware of change for change's sake who is driving change - the customer or the manager?
Marketing Communications
Word of mouth/
recommendation
Personal experience
Brand image
Expectations
Perceptions
The quality gap
Personal
elements
Tangible
elements
External
factors
Personal
factors
Technical qualities
Reliability
Accuracy
Promptness
Expertise
Functional qualities
Attitude
Appearance
Atmosphere
Responsiveness
Empathy
Quality the fit between customer expectations and perceptions
(Morgan, 1996:159)

Morgan M. 1996 Marketing for Leisure and Tourism Prentice Hall, London.
Entrance
Planned Spaces
Other observations
Full transcript