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Alan Turing

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Vinay Kanumuri

on 6 April 2015

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Transcript of Alan Turing

Thank You!
Family
Born: June 23rd, 1912 in London
Turing: the Mathematician & Computer Scientist
Conviction
Computer Scientist, Mathematician, Logician, Cryptanalyst, Mathematical Biologist and Marathoner
Alan Mathison Turing
Family: His father was an official in the East India Company and his mother was the daughter of the Chief Engineer of the Madras Railways. Alan Turing also had an older brother: John Turing.
Education
At the age of 13, Turing went to
Sherborne

School
, a well known independent school.

The first day of the term coincided with the 1926 General Strike in Britain, but he was so determined to attend that he rode his bicycle alone more than
97 km
from Southampton to Sherborne.

At Sherborne, Turing formed an important friendship with fellow pupil
Christopher Morcom
. Their relationship provided inspiration in Turing's future endeavours and Morcom's death in early 1930 shattered Turing's religious faith, causing him to become an
atheist
.

Turing was also severely
bullied
: in one instance he was trapped under the floorboards of a classroom by some classmates.
After graduating from Sherborne School, Turing studied at
King's College, Cambridge
and later obtained a PhD from
Princeton University
.
The Enigma
Turing the Ultra Distance Runner
Turing was a talented long-distance runner; he occasionally ran the
64 km
from Bletchley Park to London. He was capable of world-class marathon standards and when he tried out for the 1948 British
Olympic team
, he almost made it (he was hampered by an injury). His tryout time for the marathon was only 11 minutes slower than the British silver medalist, Thomas Richard's Olympic race time.
Death
In January 1952, Turing was charged with "
gross indecency
" because of his sexual orientation which was not socialy accepted in Britain at the time.

Turing was convicted and given a choice between imprisonment and
hormonal treatment
. Turing accepted the hormonal treatment which made him weak and led to a general decline in his physical and mental health.
On
June 8th 1954
, Turing's housekeeper found him dead. He had died the previous day. A post-mortem showed that the cause of death was
cyanide
poisoning. When his body was discovered, an apple lay half-eaten beside his bed, and it was speculated that the fatal dose of cyanide was consumed through it. An inquiry determined that Alan Turing had committed
suicide
.

Alan Turing, the man who may have saved the world from Nazi rule and made enormous contributions to human knowledge, was unjustly driven into the ground due to the unjust British laws.
Recognintion After Death
Since 1966, the "
Turing Award
" has been awarded for major contributions to the computing community. It is widely considered to be the computing world's highest honour, equivalent to the Nobel Prize.
In 2013 Queen Elizabeth II granted Alan Turing a
posthumous pardon
.
Prime Minister Gordon Brown released a statement in 2009 apologising and describing the treatment of Turing as "appalling."
Since his death Turing has been given numerous awards and civilian honors. Universities across the globe have buildings named after Alan Turing.
“Sometimes it is the people no one can imagine anything of who do the things no one can imagine.”

― Alan Turing: War Hero, Genius, Philosopher
IGCSE 10A
The
Enigma Machine
was a cipher machine used by the
Nazis
during
WWII
. During the war, cryptologists at
Bletchley Park
, a British facility, attempted to crack the code; a task that was considered impossible by most.
Sherborne School
College
Breaking the code
Alan Turing created an
electromechanical device
called a
bombe
that could decrypt Enigma messages. He used several methods to reduce the time it would take his machine to loop through the huge number of possible Enigma settings. He recognised that the Germans repeated some phrases in many of their messages and he was able to use this to find the correct enigma setting faster. One such phrase was "Hail Hitler."

Turing led the design work for the
Automatic Computing Engine or ACE
and ultimately created a groundbreaking blueprint for store-program computers.

Turing went on to hold high-ranking positions in the mathematics department and later the computing laboratory at the
University of Manchester
in the late 1940s.

He first addressed the issue of
artificial intelligence
in his 1950 paper, "Computing machinery and intelligence," and proposed an experiment known as the “
Turing Test
”—a test to differenciate between human and a robot.

Turing designed an abstract computing device known as the
Turing machine
— which could perform calculations and follow instructions. This breakthrough enabled Turing to answer an important question that was bugging mathematicians at the time: is there an algorithm that can decide whether any other algorithm will eventually halt, or whether it will run forever.
Enigma Machine
In addition, he developed the "Turing Test", which set the standards for measuring how smart any AI is.
Full transcript