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In the Eye of the Beholder
Transcript of In the Eye of the Beholder
the "arrangement and specification of type in preparation for printing"
(Livingston and Livingston 237)
all visual media created with "typography, illustration, photography, [and/or] printing for the purposes of persuasion, information, or instruction" (Livingston and Livingston 114-115)
A qualitative study
on how college students—non-designers and designers alike—may view graphic design in their everyday lives.
Uppercase & Lowercase
Typefaces have capital/uppercase letters:
A B C D E F G
And they have lowercase letters:
a b c d e f g
Many lowercase letters have extenders—parts of the letter that extend past the main body of the letter:
b d f g h
Letters without extenders:
a c e m n o
Kerning is the adjustment of space between two letters (Lupton 102). Adding or subtracting space between letters in a block of text is called tracking or letterspacing.
S b r c i g space is called negative tracking/kerning. This is difficult to read at small sizes.
A d d i n g space is called positive tracking/kerning.
Non-design students will be likely to be fond of design styles that designers consider to be bad and/or the worst design choices.
How College Students View Graphic Design
This study also hopes to better explain to non-designers what better design choices are and why these better choices should be upheld.
is the design of letterforms, a
is the delivery mechanism.
When the text is white, or another light color, on a black or other dark colored background, it is called reversed type.
u t a t n
Survey of Literature
The Elements of Typographic Style
Thinking with Type
The Anatomy of Type
Thou Shall Not Use Comic Sans: 365 Graphic Design Sins and Virtues
Sean Adams, Peter Dawson,
John Foster, Tony Seddon
The Thames & Hudson Dictionary of Graphic Design and Designers
Alan and Isabella Livingston
Just My Type
Get Real: The Need for Effective Design Research
Graphic design is grouped with communications, so designers need to use their knowledge of human factors in order to communicate with them effectively and cater viewers' needs.
The Protocol of Display: Graphic Design and Public Imagination
Designs work best when the designer can predict what viewers will feel and think of while viewing the design.
Emotion in Typographic Design: An Empirical Examination
Survey participants reacted to certain typefaces with different emotions.
Designers should acknowledge and study how their designs can affect human emotions.
Online survey of 101 college students, at Rider or not at Rider. Survey began asking students' gender, year in college, their major(s) and minor(s), whether or not they have taken a graphic design course before, and if so, to explain.
Questions & Results
Implications of Findings
Businesses that create any type of visual material to communicate with consumers will find this interesting because knowing what consumers think will help facilitate communication.
Non-designers should look at this study and learn more about graphic design principles so they can better visually communicate with others and learn what "not to do."
The study should be redone and ask respondents "why" not just "this or that."
The résumé question should be reworded.
If you'd like to see the original study, visit