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Class 11: Temporal Profiles of Cultures
Transcript of Class 11: Temporal Profiles of Cultures
Temporal Profiles of Cultures
1. Different studies on time across cultures
2. Basics of cross-cultural research: translation / adaptation, equivalence and bias
3. Course project
What is time?
Pace of Life
Studies by Robert Levine
When we make a decision we orientate (are guided by) on our past, or our notion of the future, or on our experiences in the present.
Time orientation – relative dominance of past, present or future in a person’s thought (Hornik & Zakay, 1996).
Time perspective is individual's view of his/her future or past in his/her present (K.Lewin, 1949).
Simulating Irrational Human Behavior to Prevent Resource Depletion
...to put things in perspective...
"For us convinced physicists, the distinction between past, present, and future is only an illusion, although a persistent one."
Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory
Prof. Zimbardo extends this theory and distinguishes 5 different kinds of time perspective:
Two aspects of past orientation
Past Negative (NP) orientation, in which the past is predominantly seen as unpleasant and aversive.
Past Positive orientation (PP), in which past experiences or past times are seen in a nostalgic, rosy, and pleasant way.
Two aspects of present orientation
The present can be perceived in a
(PH) way, as full of pleasure, enjoying the moment without remorse for later consequences of actual behavior.
Alternatively one can have a
(PF) orientation. People with this orientation strongly believe in fate, have a resigned attitude toward the present in which they believe it cannot be changed and that they cannot influence either present events or their future.
One aspect of future orientation
The fifth factor is
orientation (F), characterized by having goals and making plans for the future, and behaving so as to increase the chances of carrying out those plans and realizing those goals.
Balanced time perspective
“Balanced TP” – most psychologically and physically healthy for individuals and optimal for societal functioning.
It’s a mental ability to switch flexibly among TPs depending on task features, situational considerations, and personal resources rather than be biased toward a specific TP that is not adaptive across situations.
People, living in big cities are mostly
People, living in smaller cities are mostly
International Research Network on Time Perspective
Step 1: Establishing equivalence
1) all 5 factors were replicated in the structure;
2) 36 out of 56 items of the ZTPI were equivalent across 24 country samples.
Questions to the reading:
1. What was the most interesting that you learned about time from the chapter?
2. Why establishing equivalence is important and what did you learn about different levels of equivalence?
3. What was the most notable regarding the cultural differences in time perspective in general and in TP profiles?
Oldest Living Things In the World
Cross-cultural study steps
Establishing psychometric equivalence
Studying cultural differences in the construct
Studying its associations with social indicators
Example: ‘Burglar’ (Picture Arrangement; adapted for use in low-SES children in Bangalore, India )
Malda, Van de Vijver, Srinivasan, Transler (2008): Adapting a Western Cognitive Test for a Non-Western Context: The KABC-II in Bangalore, India
Kaufman ABC used in Bangalore (Kannada-speaking children)
Adaptation of words in subtest
Unfamiliarity and ambiguity of objects and words
Number of syllables
Example of Measurement-Driven Adaptation (Unfamiliarity)
Problem: word for star in Kannada is too long
Problem: Key was often called "ice cream"
Problem: original drawing was not easily recognized as house, distinguishing features added
Moderately fatalistic countries
Future oriented countries
Time Perspective profiles